ch-5-1 - Chapter 5 Liquids and solids 5-1 Intermolecular...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 Liquids and solids 5-1 Intermolecular Forces Condensed Phase Energy kJ/mol-12-10-8-6-4-2 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 Gas Solid Liquid Intermolecular Interaction 分子間作用力的能量 分子間作用力的能量 分子間作用力的能量 分子間作用力的能量 Electrostatic Interactions s 分子之間的作用力皆源自 靜電作用力(庫倫作用力 coulombic interactions )觀 點並可分為: s Ion-Ion Forces ( ∝ 1/r) s Ion-Dipole Forces ( ∝ 1/r 2 ) s Dipole-Dipole Forces ( ∝ 1/r 3 ) s London Forces ( ∝ 1/r 6 ) s Hydrogen Bonding Table of Intermolecular Interactions Ion-Ion Forces r r q q E P 1 4 2 1 ∝ = π ε Long Range Interaction Force : Ionic Bonds between Na +-Cl- Ion-Dipole Forces s Hydration (水合): The attachment of water molecules to solute molecules, s NaCl dissolve in water +--- + + + 鹽類容於水中 +- Hydrated Salt s 當鹽類(離子化合物)結 晶時,有些鹽類會保留一 些水分子在身邊,此鹽類 稱為水合鹽( hydrate or hydrated salt ),常常在礦 物中見到,如: s Na 2 CO 3 . 10H 2 O s CuSO 4 . 5H 2 O Copyright © Jeff Weissman Photographic Guide to Mineral Species Ion-Dipole Interaction +q-q +ze ( ) ( ) 2 2 2 ) ( 4 2 r Z a r aq Ze E P μ π ε- ∝- ⋅- = μ = 2aq ( dipole moment ) 2a Z 是離子的電荷數 Ion-Dipole 作用力特性 s 比 ion-ion 作用力還容易 受距離的影響,因此只...
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ch-5-1 - Chapter 5 Liquids and solids 5-1 Intermolecular...

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