Chapter 10 Reading Notes

Chapter 10 Reading Notes - Chapter10readingnotes 10....

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Chapter 10 reading notes 10. 1 Spontaneous Processes Processes that occur without outside intervention, can be fast or slow. Thermodynamics lets us predict whether or not a process will occur but gives no  information about the amount of time required All spontaneous processes observe an increase in entropy Entropy (S)  – the change in the entropy of the universe for a given process is a  measure of the driving force behind that process Nature spontaneously proceeds toward the states that have the highest probability of  existing The probability of occurrence of a particular arrangement (state) depends on the  number of ways (microstates) in which that arrangement can be achieved. Positional probability – depends on the number of configurations in space (positional  microstates) that yield a particular state. 10.2 The Isothermal Expansion and Compression of an Ideal Gas Isothermal Process –  one in which the temperatures of the system and the  surroundings remain constant at all times. For an isothermal process with an ideal gas ΔE = 0 ΔE = q + w = 0 q = -w Only when the expansion and compression are both done reversibly (by an infinite  number of steps) is the universe the same after the cyclic process (the expansion and  the subsequent compression of the gas back to its original state). Only in reversible  processes is the heat absorbed during the expansion exactly equal to the heat  released during compression. In all processes carried out using a finite number of  steps, more heat is released into the surroundings than is absorbed in the comparable  expansion. All real processes are irreversible Maximum work obtainable from the gas occurs when the expansion is carried out  reversibly. Reversible: both the system ad the surroundings are returned exactly to their original 
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This note was uploaded on 10/31/2009 for the course CH 56435 taught by Professor Flowers during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter 10 Reading Notes - Chapter10readingnotes 10....

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