Lecture 4 ('09)

Lecture 4 ('09) - Zeus’ Rise to Power Zeus’ Titanomachy...

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Unformatted text preview: Zeus’ Rise to Power Zeus’ Titanomachy and Gigantomachy Prometheus and Pandora 9/2/2009 The Titanomachy The Zeus grows up on Crete Cronus vomits up children and the stone Stone later placed at Delphi Marking the omphalos (‘navel’) of the world Zeus and the eagles The Titanomachy The Zeus leads Olympians (Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon), along with Cyclopes and Hecatonchires vs. Cronus and the Titans Zeus et al. [ = et alii, ‘and the others’] fight from Mt. Olympus; 10 year war; Olympians prevail; Titans imprisoned in Tartarus Titanomachy = ‘battle against the Titans’ The Gigantomachy The Gigantomachy = ‘battle against the Giants’ Giants are gegeneis, ‘earthborn ones’ Monstrous, chthonic creatures Blood from Uranus’ genitalia mixed with earth Celestial vs. chthonic Half human, half serpent Order vs. Chaos The Gigantomachy The Typhoeus (or Typhaon or Typhon) Sometimes leader of Giants, sometimes solo opponent of Zeus Chthonic, monstrous creature The Gigantomachy The Zeus and Olympians defeat Giants/Typhoeus Imprisoned in earth Gigantomachy represents victory of order over chaos, celestial gods over chthonic gods, civilization over savagery Places become volcanic mountains (e.g. Enceladus under Mt. Aetna in Sicily) Possibly reflects historical victory of invaders over native populations ca. 2000 BCE Zeus in Power Zeus Zeus and Olympians are masters of the universe Casting of lots Zeus gets heaven Poseidon gets seas Hades gets underworld Basic threefold division of the universe The Creation of Mortals The Many variants, even within single authors (e.g. Ovid) Either creator god made mankind from divine seed or Prometheus mixed earth and water and molded man in image of gods The Ages of Mankind The Hesiod’s Works and Days Age of Gold (reign of Cronus) Age of Silver (succession of Zeus) Age of Bronze Age of Heroes (omitted by Ovid) Age of Iron Progress vs. primitivism Hesiod’s own age Prometheus, champion of progress Cf. biblical ‘Fall’ / garden of Eden Prometheus Prometheus Name means ‘forethought’ Benefactor of human race Culture hero Pyrphoros (‘fire­ bringer’) Symbol of human advance via technology Prometheus Prometheus Prometheus tricks Zeus Sacrifice at Mecone Zeus removes fire from earth Prometheus steals fire, brings it back to mortals (hence, pyrphoros) Myth as etiology for sacrificial practice Prometheus Prometheus Prometheus’ punishment Mankind’s punishment Pandora Pandora Pandora Created by Hephaestus, god of crafts (Roman Vulcan) Name means ‘all gifts’ Mother of the ‘race of women’ Hesiod: ‘can’t live with ‘em, can’t live without ‘em’ Pandora’s jar, source of all the world’s evils Ancient misogyny Cf. Eve Only hope remains within Very perplexing ...
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