2 - Introduction to the Study of Psychology PSYC1001...

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Introduction to the Study of Psychology PSYC1001 - Section F
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In today’s class… Chapter 3 Genetics : how much of human behaviour is biologically (genetically) pre-determined? How do genes determine “who” we are? Evolution : how does our evolutionary history influence our behaviour today?
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Building a living organism… If you wanted to create a set of plans for building a human, how would you do it? Our genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA) is the code for building a person We start with the genetic material of the Mother & Father – one egg and one sperm Each containing half of our genetic code
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The DNA molecule Instructions providing all of the information necessary for an organism to grow and live are contained in the nucleus of every cell. These instructions tell the cell what role it will play in your body. DNA encodes a detailed set of plans (a blueprint) for building different parts of the cell.
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The DNA molecule A double helix shape (a twisted ladder) The “backbone” (the 2 twisting sides) is composed of sugar and phosphoric acid (phosphate) The backbone of the ladder is connected by nucleotide molecules of adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine (ATGC) These molecules always come in pairs: “A” always pairs with “T” and “G” always pairs with “C”
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Genes Gene – pieces of DNA – the location of a particular sequence of nucleotides along the DNA molecule. Genome – all of the DNA contained in an organism (the complete set of plans). The Human Genome Contains between 30,000 and 40,00 genes All are located on 23 pairs of chromosomes Chromosomes – A molecule that is a thread of DNA – we have 23 pairs (i.e. 46) – half of each pair comes from each parent.
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Quick Review… The building blocks of our DNA are the base pairs of nucleotide molecules (T paired with A, and C paired with G) – these are the “rungs” that connect the two “backbones” of the “ladder”
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Quick Review… We have approximately 3 billion of these nucleotide base pairs These are clustered into approximately 30,000 to 40,000 genes (of varying sizes) These genes are organized into 23 pairs of chromosomes
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Genes & Genetic Diversity Back to creating a human… Half of our genetic code comes from each parent – they each give us half of their genetic code – but which half? 30,000-40,000 gene pairs – we get a random selection of “one half of each pair” Thus, our genetic code will be different (based on random selection) from the genetic code of our siblings. On average , we share 50% of our genetic material with our siblings.
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Genetic Diversity For any particular physical trait – a pair of genes , or a set of gene pairs , will provide the code for creating that trait.
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