Lec4-09 - Lec4 2009 INTRODUCTORY ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY...

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Lec4- 2009 file:///C|/WINWORD/COURSES/31109/Lec4-09.htm[8/19/2009 9:15:42 AM] INTRODUCTORY ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY BIOAP3110/BIOMS3110/VTBMS3460 FALL 2009 OUTLINE - LECTURE 4 Energy, Gradients and the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics I. Major Topics/Concepts to be covered: 1. The need for energy to maintain biological structure and function. 2. Potential and kinetic energy. 3. Lowest energy states and reaction directions. a. Entropy and the 2nd law. 4. Energy sources - the definition of batteries. a. Concentration batteries. b. Redox batteries. b. Ion electrochemical batteries. 5. Coupled reactions. a. Chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP by mitochondria. II. You will have learned the material when you can: 1. Identify the sources of energy for a particular physiological process. 2. Diagram the energy flow and gradient dynamics for various processes. III.Sample problems: 1. What is the magnitude of the change in potential energy for each ten- fold deviation away from the equilibrium constant value? 2. What does the chemiosmotic theory of ATP production predict will happen if I add hydrogen ions outside the mitochondria to the system already at equilibrium? Summary: All living systems use and store energy. In fact, without mechanisms for obtaining and storing energy there could be no life. One of the things you will be expected to be able to do is come up with an 'energy flow diagram' for the various physio- logical systems we will be studying. Life is an energetically unfavourable state! It takes a lot of energy to maintain the structure, at all levels from the molecular to the whole animal, that defines life. Where does this energy come from and how is it used to maintain life processes? All systems will have a definable ground or lowest energy state consistent with the characteristics of the system at that time. This need not be the lowest energy possible for a system, but only the lowest energy allowable under a set of specific criteria. For example, assume I am bouncing a ball down a flight of stairs. As the ball moves to each lower step it loses energy.
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