APUS Lipman chpt. 2.ppt - MR LIPMAN\u2019S APUS CHAPTER TWO England Begins Settlement Why England colonized Americas late \u2013 First 1\/2 of 1500s England

APUS Lipman chpt. 2.ppt - MR LIPMANu2019S APUS CHAPTER TWO...

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Unformatted text preview: MR. LIPMAN’S APUS CHAPTER TWO England Begins Settlement Why England colonized Americas late – First 1/2 of 1500s, England was Spain’s ally and had little interest in competing with Spain – In the 1530s, Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church, setting off decades-long religious conflict and thus were not equipped to begin settlement of North America when Spain did. Henry VIII South America and Mexico had been radically altered by European contact North America in 1600 largely unclaimed and unexplored Early 1600s – 3 European powers make claims in 3 different parts of North America – – – 1607 – English at Jamestown 1608 – French at Quebec 1610 – Spanish at Santa Fe Queen Elizabeth (1533 – 1603) – Powerful and popular queen – encouraged English expansion English “sea dogs” – English pirates who plundered Spanish treasure ships and settlements (even though England and Spain were technically at peace) – Encouraged by ambitious Queen Elizabeth – Most famous was Sir Francis Drake Travelled world; brought back huge amount of treasure to England stolen from Spanish Queen Elizabeth Roanoke – 1585 – island settled off coast of Virginia by Sir Walter Raleigh – Roanoke colonists disappeared; still a mystery as to what happened to them Spanish Armada – Catholic Spanish King Philip II assembled “Invincible Armada” of ships to invade England – Spanish wanted to end the Protestant Reformation and take revenge for English raids by sea dogs In 1588, the Spanish sailed for England – English sea dogs attacked using better ships (faster, with better crews) – Then huge storm (the “Protestant wind”) finished off the Spanish Importance of the Spanish Armada to England – England’s navy dominant in North Atlantic, eventually led to England becoming world’s strongest ocean power – Dampened Spain’s fighting spirit – England now displayed the characteristics that Spain earlier had: a strong, unified country under popular monarch, religious unity (Protestants had put down Catholics), and a strong sense of nationalism 1604 – peace treaty between English and Spanish England on the Eve of Empire England’s “surplus population” – Population expanding ( 4 million – by 1600) – English land owners enclosed croplands for sheep grazing, removing many people from the land – Late 1500s – depression hit wool industry, putting many people out of work Puritans strong in these areas – Laws of primogeniture – only eldest sons inherited estates; ambitious younger sons (like Gilbert, Raleigh, Drake) had to seek fortunes elsewhere Early adventurers (on their own) were unsuccessful Joint-stock company, forerunners of the modern corporation, were perfected in the early 1600s – Investors (“adventurers”) pooled capital to finance trips to the New World KEY FACTORS FOR ENGLAND’S COLONIZATION 1. 2. 3. 4. Defeat of Spain Enclosure Acts Primogeniture Laws Joint-Stock Companies Jamestown Late 1606 – Virginia Company sent out 3 ships May 24, 1607 – about 100 colonists (all men) landed at Jamestown, along banks of James River (both named for the king) in Virginia Map of Jamestown 1608 – John Smith took control of colony and set up strict rule – Smith was credited with saving the colony – “He who shall not work shall not eat.” It became the rule of the colony In December 1607 Smith was captured and subject to a mock execution by the Indian chief, Powhatan – Pocahontas “saved” Smith in ritual designed to show Smith the power of Powhatan and the desire of the Indians to live in peace – Pocahontas became the intermediary between Indians and colonists, preserving peace and providing the colonists with food Pocahontas Cultural Clash in the Chesapeake 1622 – 1644 – periodic attacks between Indians and settlers – Indians pushed back off land and killed by European diseases – 1622 – Indians attacked English, killing 347 (including John Rolfe) – Virginia Company called for “perpetual war” against Indians – English raids reduced native population and drove them further westward 1644 – 1646 –Powhatan War – Last effort of natives to defeat English – Indians again defeated Peace treaty of 1646 – Removed Powhatan Indians from their original land – Formally separated Indian and English settlement areas Powhatan Indians victim of the three Ds: – Disease, disorganization, disposability – Foreshadowed what would happen to the rest of the natives as white settlers moved inland Cultivation of tobacco – 1612 – John Rolfe perfected curing the weed to eliminate its bitter taste – Soon grown everywhere to fill unquenchable desire for it in Europe – Virginians pushed inward/westward (against Indians) for more land Tobacco’s effect on Virginia’s economy – Vital role in putting Virginia on firm economic footing – Ruinous to soil when continuously planted – Chained Virginia’s economy to a single crop Representative self-government in Virginia – In 1619, the Virginia Company authorized settlers to form an assembly (called the House of Burgesses) – This was the first of many mini-Parliaments in America Virginia soon became a royal colony – James I grew hostile to Virginia; he hated tobacco and distrusted the House of Burgesses (a “seminary of sedition”) – In 1624, the king revoked the charter of the bankrupt Virginia company – Virginia was made a royal colony, under the king’s direct control 1634 – Maryland founded by Lord Baltimore – Wanted profit and refuge for fellow Catholics (who were discriminated against by Protestant England) Colony of Maryland In 1649, Catholics threw their support behind the Act of Toleration, which was passed by Maryland's assembly – The law guaranteed toleration to all Christians, but decreed death to those who denied divinity of Jesus (Jews, atheists) So in some ways, Maryland was less tolerant than before law was passed The West Indies In the early 1600s Spain lost control of West Indies – Weakened by military overextension and rebellion in Dutch provinces England moved in to take over – By the mid 1600s, England controlled several important islands (including Jamaica) Sugar was foundation of West Indian economy Sugar planters had to import huge numbers of African slaves – – – From 1640 to 1690, 250,000 were imported By 1700, blacks outnumbered whites 4 to 1 West Indies are predominantly black to this day The West Indies and Carolina in the 17th Century Colonizing the Carolinas In 1670, Carolina was founded, named for Charles II – The King granted Carolina to 8 supporters (Lords/ Proprietors) – These 8 hoped to use Carolina to supply their plantations in Barbados with food and export wine, silk, and olive oil to Europe Early Carolina and Georgia Settlements Rice became primary export of Carolina – Rice was grown in Africa, so planters imported West African slaves – These slaves were ideal because they were experienced in rice cultivation and had genetic trait that made them relatively immune to malaria – By 1710, black slaves were a majority in Carolina Virginia was dominated by aristocratic planters who were generally members of Church of England Dissenters moved south to northern Carolina – Poor farmers with little need for slaves – Religious dissenters 1712 – after fightin North Carolina was officially separated from South Carolina – Both became royal colonies Georgia – Founded in 1733 – Last of 13 colonies – Named for King George II – Founded by James Oglethorpe Purposes of Georgia – Chiefly was to serve as a buffer between the valuable Carolinas and Spanish Florida and French Louisiana – Served as a haven for debtors thrown into prison – Determined to keep slavery out because poor worried they would then be forced out by rich slave owners Southern Colonies Wide scattering slowed growth of cities; made schools and churches difficult and expensive Some religious toleration existed – Church of England was dominant faith Expansionary – Excessive tobacco growing drove settlers westward KEYS TO CHAPTER TWO 1. 1600s sees rise of England’s Empire and fall of Spain’s 2. Colonies develop differently and independently 3. Slavery is present in all colonies ...
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