S09_EAS_102GH_Des_Proj - Miami University Spring 2009...

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Miami University Spring 2009 http://www.richmangalleries.com/Betsy_Ross_Bridge_Truss.jpg (Ref : http://www.richmangalleries.com/Betsy_Ross_Bridge_Truss.jpg) Introduction Marcus Vitruvius Pollio was a Roman Engineer/Architect who lived during the last century Before the Common Era (BCE). Known as “Vitruvius”, he was actually more a chronicler of engineering principles than a developer of them. His De Architectura is the only surviving work that documents the then current state-of-the-art of Engineering/Architecture in that period. In De Architectura Vitruvius presents a wide-ranging holistic overview of Roman scientific knowledge including a system of design principles based largely on rules of proportion, with a focus on structural materials of the day that provided almost all of their support through compression. Vitruvius rather wisely stated that any structure worth building must be durable, useful, and beautiful. One such example is the truss, which has been in use since ancient times. Leonardo da Vinci’s drawing, The Vitruvian Man , was based on concepts described in De Architectura [1]. Vitruvius’s approach to Engineering/Architectural design remained pretty much intact and unchanged for almost 2000 years. Theory and experimentation of the strength of materials were recorded by da Vinci in the 15 th century and Galileo in the beginning of the 17th century. From the 17 th century through the 18 th century the greatest minds of the time including, Euler, Hooke, Bernoulli, Lagrange, Coulomb, and Newton worked on developing the science of materials and structure. In fact Leonardo da Vinci wrote “Mechanics is the paradise of mathematical science because here we come to the fruits of mathematics.” Unfortunately, during this time, theory was not essential for most architectural design and builders relied on experience and basic rules similar to those of Vitruvius. The industrial revolution and the development of engineering would change all this. In the 19 th Century with the advent of steam locomotives and inexpensive iron, and later steel, a new more modern approach was called for. Unlike most previous structural materials, iron and steel exhibited very high tensile strength in addition to compressive strength. In order to take full advantage of iron and steel, new methods for analyzing and optimizing designs had to be developed. The publication A Work on Bridge Building by Squire Whipple in 1847 is widely regarded as marking the beginning of a scientific approach to bridge building [2]. This led to the 1
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Miami University Spring 2009 expanded use of iron and steel as tensile and compressive structural members. This allowed for the widespread use of truss assemblies that made use of a balance of forces between tensile and compressive components arranged to maximize the overall efficiency of the entire structure. The truss structure is an ancient idea.
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2009 for the course PCE EAS 102 taught by Professor Coffin during the Spring '09 term at Miami University.

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S09_EAS_102GH_Des_Proj - Miami University Spring 2009...

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