Ch02 - Review last lecture Which of the following is true...

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Review last lecture
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Which of the following is true about stereoisomers? A. They have different configurations. B. They are indistinguishable by enzymes. C. The have different chemical bonds. D. They exist in equal amounts in living organisms.
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1-19a
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p. 17 RS system priorities: -SH > -OCH 2 > -OH > -NH 2 > -COOH > -CHO > -CH 2 OH > -CH 3 > -H > : enantiomers
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Biochemistry of living systems follows same chemical and physical laws as rest of nature. Complexity of biochemical systems may at first glance seem overwhelming, but really only 5 general types of chemical transformations in cells: 1. Oxidation-reduction - electron transfer (e.g. dehydrogenation) 2. Internal rearrangements - isomerization, cis-trans rearrangements, intramolecular oxidation-reduction 3. Group transfers - e.g. phosphate from ATP 4. Condensation reactions - joining of monomeric subunits 5. Cleavage/formation of carbon-carbon bonds - nucleophilic substitution pp. 495-500
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Thermodynamics review •Creating and maintaining order (e.g. a cell) requires work and energy •Total entropy of universe is continually increasing free energy must be supplied to system (cell) to bring about synthesis of macromolecules from simple precursors (increased order) Entropy , S, represents randomness or disorder of system Enthalpy , H, reflects number and kinds of bonds (covalent and noncovalent) Free energy , G = H - TS •When chemical reaction occurs at constant T, change in free energy, G = H - T S •Process tends to occur spontaneously only if G is negative, i.e. only if total free energy of system decreases
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Water and Buffers Chapter 2 1. Properties of water 2. Acids and Bases 3. Buffers
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Osmosis is water movement across a semipermeable membrane. Which of the following is true about water movement across cell membranes? A. In a hypotonic solution, cells will swell. B. In an isotonic solution, cells will shrink. C. In a hypertonic solution, cells will stay the same. D. Cells can neither shrink nor swell because water cannot penetrate the plasma membrane.
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longer than a covalent bond? What are the relative strengths of an H-bond vs. a covalent bond? H-bond = ~23 kJ/mol O-H = 470 kJ/mol C-C = 348 kJ/Mol 2-1 Water is unique and important to life. Why does water
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2009 for the course CH 302 taught by Professor Holcombe during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas.

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Ch02 - Review last lecture Which of the following is true...

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