ch07,10 - Carbohydrates Chapter 7 Why study carbohydrates?...

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Carbohydrates Chapter 7
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Why study carbohydrates? Fuel source for most animals is carbohydrate (e.g. glucose) = highly reduced form of carbon. Carbohydrates (saccharides) have empirical formula (CH 2 O) n Monosaccharides = single polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone unit (e.g. glucose)
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the trioses (simplest monosaccharides) What is this functional group? What is this functional group? aldose 7-1 ketose
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Stereoisomerism of monosaccharides 7-2
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p. 237 D-aldoses How many chiral centers does this have? 2 4 3 2 4 = 16 stereoisomers of aldohexoses
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D-ketoses p. 237 How many chiral centers does this have? ketotetrose ketopentose ketohexose 1 2 3 ketotriose How many total stereoisomers for ketohexoses? 2 3 = 8
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D-aldoses epimers D-glucose and D-mannose are epimers at which position? C4 D-glucose and D-galactose are epimers at which position? C2
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monosaccharides are optically active: dextrorotatory (+52.7 degrees) may exist in 2 different isomeric forms: -D-glucose = +112.2° -D-glucose = +18.7° +52.7° Mutarotation: ~ 1/3 and 2/3 -D-glucose
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7-6 intramolecular hemiacetal formation What kind of reaction is this? Nucleophilic addition
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7-5
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7-6 Anomeric carbon anomers Reducing sugar
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7-7 Haworth projections “Fischer Left it Up to Haworth”
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7-8
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7-9 Derivatives of monosaccharides
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Disaccharides 7-11 O-glycosidic linkage
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7-12 Lactose What is the configuration of the anomeric carbon in the glycosidic bond?
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What is the configuration of the anomeric carbon in the glycosidic bond?
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7-11 Lactose intolerance = lactase deficiency (maltase)
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Polysaccharides = many monosaccharide units joined in long linear or branched chains. e.g. starch and cellulose (plants) or glycogen (animals) 7-13
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7-14 amylopectin Why is this called the reducing end? Potentially free
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ch07,10 - Carbohydrates Chapter 7 Why study carbohydrates?...

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