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Quick Study Reference - Medical Terminology The Language of...

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Unformatted text preview: Medical Terminology: The Language of Health Care Second Edition Marjorie Canfield Willis Most medical terms have three basic components: root, suffix, and prefix. The root is the foundation or subiect oi the term. All medical terms have one or more roots. The suffix is the term ending that modifies and gives essential meaning to the root. All terms have a sutiix. The prefix is a term beginning used only when needed to Further modify the root or roots. Not all medical terms have a pretix. A combining vowel (usually 0 or i) connects a root to another root or to a suftix (term ending). A combining vowel is not used ii the suitix begins with a vowel, but is retained when the suffix begins with a consonant A combining form is a root plus a combining vowel. Remembering combining Forms makes it easy to Form and spell medical terms. Most medical terms can be defined by determining the meaning of the suffix first, then the prefix (ii present), then the root or roots. Consult a good medical dictionary tor the meaning ot terms that are exceptions to this general rule. Rules for Forming and Spelling Medical Terms 6% A combining vowel is used to ioin root to root as well as root to any suiiix beginning with a consonant, e.g., electr/o/cardi/o/gram. @ A combining vowel is not used before a sutiix that begins with a vowel, e.g., vas/ectomy. @ if the root ends in a vowel and the suffix begins with the same vowel, drop the final vowel lrom the root and do not use a combining vowel, e.g., card/itis. @ Most often, a combining vowel is inserted between two roots even when the second root begins with a vowel, e.g., cardi/o/esophageal. @ Occasionally, when a prefix ends in a vowel and the root begins with a vowel, the final vowel is dropped from the preiix, e.g., par/enter/al. V {9; eeeeeeee _______________________——————————-—-———— Term Component to English ______________.,__.____——————-——-—————-—-—~—— 0. ob- abdomin/o -ac acous/o acr/o -ocusis 9d- aden/o odip/o adren/o oer/o -al albumin / o -nlgia allo- alveol/o ambi- an- 99¢ an/o andr/o 0091M? “Ithl/Q. ante- anti- aort/o espendic/o 9999/0 .ur -arche arteri/o orthr/o erticul/o without away From abdomen pertaining to hearing extremity or topmost hearing condition to, toward, or near gland Fat adrenal gland air or gas pertaining to protein pain other alveolus (air sac) both without up,yapart anus I male vessel crooked or stiti belore against or opposed to aorta appendix water pertaining to beginning artery _,,.ieintigrtisyletign . . ,, , 19”“ I pertaining/tor realises; ,, ILIL,:1...,.,,-,.,-- ., ,i brachi/o ,Qtriqm ,,, beefing _, , ,eqr , . , ,, ,-,,..-§le wmbacteria 7‘"me"ééifiigzéié exslid ,,,, .wrbgn, digs??? cancer cardi/o cata- -cele celi/o -centesis cephal/o cerebell/o cerebr/o cerumin/o cervic/o cheiI/o chir/o chol / e chondr/o chrom/o chromat/o chyl/o circum- cis/o col / o colono colp/o con- coniunctiv/o contro- corner/o 99ronl9 , cost/o crani/o crin/o cutane/o age/,9 ,- . . sxst/o _ 6N9 . , dacry/o dEFlYl/P, , ‘ f Entire: 6C" -emesis heart down pouching or hernia abdomen puncture For aspiration head cerebellum (little brain) cerebrum (largest part oi brain) wax neck or cervix lip hand bile cartilage (gristle) color color iuice around cut colon I colon vagina (sheath) together or with coniunctiva (to Loin toget er) against or opposed to cornea circle orrcro’wn rib skull to secrete skin r I 7 blue V bladder or sac 7 cell H, ,,_ ,. , .teer, digit llingsrpr 199.) tram, down, or not _ ....9EE9§5 or through “'se'patgigram or Shari a duct duodenum ain mpginiul, diiiicult, or Faulty rker W9)? pertaining to , __ Getaway expvgnsion gr dilation -emia blood condition en- within encephal/o entire brain enclo- within enter/o small intestine 6?“ 999“ epididym/o repididyrnis episi/o vulva (covering) erythr/o red esophag/o esophagus esthesi/o sensation eu- good or normal ex- out or away exor outside extra- outside fasci/o Fascia (a band) femor/o iemur fibr/o fiber gangli/o ganglion (knot) gostr/o stomach sen origin 9r pmslvsfion -genesis origin or production gen/o origin or production ger/o old age gingiv/o gums gli/o glue glomerul/o glomerulus (little boll) gloss/o I tongue elm/0 ensuing ales/,0 E990“ 911/910 syger elves/0 weer 9995/9 , keying 79mm , record :sreph instrument fer, receding jgrgphy process oi recording 9122919,. , hem/.0 rat/o. hepatic/o herni/o hetero: I -i0 7 “Mycondition of :i9§i,s termefimefer Rte igijg 77 treatment -iatrics I 7 Vtrergtment :igtrx.-- _ ,, ,, ,, treatment 719.--..__..--.--.,,,---..,......:.;.ignoring}? W “term Qompanent to English W -icle small myos/o muscle -plasty surgical repair or reconstruction -stasis stop or stand ile/o ileum myring/o eardrum ~p|egia paralysis steal/o Fat immun/o sate narc/o stupor, sleep pleur/o pleura sten/o narrow infra- below or under nos/o nose ~pnea breathing stere/o three-dimensional or solid inguin/o groin not/i birth pneum/o air or lung stern/o sternum (breastbone) inter- between necr/o death pneumon/o air or lung steth/o r chest intra- within neo- new pod/o loot stomat/o mouth ir/o iris (colored circle) nephr/o kidney ~poiesis tormation -stomy creation of an opening irid/o iris (colored circle) neur/o nerve poly- many sub- below or uncler 'ism condition 0): ObS'Gl’f/O mldWiie post- atter or behind super- above or excessive iso- equal, like ocul/o eye pre- before supra- above or excessive -ist one who specializes in -oid resembling presby/o old age sym- together or With -itis inllammation -ole small pro- betore syn- together or with -ium structure or tissue olig/o Few or deficient Prod/o onus and rectum tachy- tast ieiun/o jejunum (empty) -oma tumor Prostat/o prostate tax/o order or coordination kerat/o hard or cornea onycll/o nail Psych/o mind ten/o tendon (to stretch) ket/o ketone bodies OOPl’IOf/O OVCII’)’ -pf°si§ falling or downward tend/o tendon (to stretch) keton/o ketone bodies ophthalm/o eye displacement tendtn/o tendon (to stretch) kinesi/o movement -opia condition at vision pulmon/o lung test/o testis (testicle) kyph/o humpback opt/o eye purpur/o purple thalam/o thalamus (a room) lacrim/o tear or/o mouth py/o pus therm/o heat lact/o milk orch/o testis (testicle) pyel/o basin thorac/o chest lapar/o abdomen orchi/o testis (testicle) pylor/o pylorus (gatekeeper) thromb/o clot laryng/o larynx (voice box) orchid/o testis (testicle) quadr/i tour thym/o thymus gland lei/o smooth ortl‘I/o straight, normal, or correct radi/o radius (a bone at the torearm); thyr/o, thyroid/o thyroid land -lepsy seizure ~osis condition or increase radiation (especially X'I’Oyl (sfiield) leuc/o white oste/o bone '6' 090)" Or bOCk -tiC pertaining to leuk/o white ot/o ear rect/o rectum toc/o labor or birth lex/o word or phrase -ous pertaining to ren/o kidney tom/o to cut “ngu/o tongue ov/i e99 reticul/o a net -tomy incision “p/o (at ov/o egg retin/o retina ton/o tone or tension lith/o stone or calculus ovari/o ovary retro- backward or behind tonsill/o tonsil (almond) |oblo |obe (a Portion) ox/o oxygen rhabd/o rod shaped or top/o "place -logist one who specializes in the pachy- thick _ Sirloted (Skelemll tax/o poison study or treatment at polot/o palate rh'“/° "055 toxiC/o poison ~logy study at pon- all 'rrhage '0 bUTSl Forth trache/o trachea (windpipe) lord/o bent pancreqt/o pancreas ‘rrhagia l0 bu“) lorll‘ trans- OCI‘OSS or through lumb/o loin (lower back) paro- alongside at or abnormal ‘rrhaphy SUlure tri- three lymph/o clear tluid ~paresis slight paralysis '"hea diSChorge trich/o hair -lysis breaking down or dissolution patell/o knee cap 'I'I'lleXlS rupture -tripsy crushing macro- large or long Roth/o. _ _ disease sniping/o uterine (fallopian) tube; troph/o nourishment or development —malacia softening pector/o chest ~ 7 r r - also euslgchlun lUbe tympan/o eardrum mamm/o breast ped/o child or toot surf/o ‘ . fled) -ulu, -Ule small “mania abnormal impulse (Gfiroction) pelv/i, pelv/o hip bone sgrhr'flz/o . spl'll d'v‘s’on uln/o 7 ulna (a bone at the torearm) V _ _ lowc‘rd -penia abnormal reduction “(er/o hard or Sclem ultra- beyond or excessive (995%? , , bFeQSl per- H H I scpll/o MiSled Uyni- _ 7 one meat/o opening peri- around '§$9B,e,, , WWW?th (9” exam“). .9” ur/o ‘ i meg°' lqrge perine/o perineum 'scppy examine) on MEET/9 Wei?" meQGI/O large Peritone/o peritoneum , sebum urethr/o urethra 79919.9”, ., ,, enlargement suspension seml' l‘all aria/9 7 urine {ne'an/o bluCk phac/o i i i i lensllentil) Sl°I/° saliva uter/o 7 uterus menstruqfion phagi/o eat or swallow $39m°id/° sigmoid C,°l°” vagin/o vagina (sheath) meniflaeilmemhtqnel phakyo lens (lentil) SiniS'rh left: or 0” ll‘e lei) Side varic/o _ __ swollen or tvvisted vein meninges (membrane) yo pharyfix' " ' sinus/o 7 hollow (cavity) YES/9 ‘ I Myersrsrefllr middle i N i i 59m°l/° , , l9de vascul/o __ _ vessel 7 beyqnd, qflen or 9h,9nge Tit.“ ' ' attraction for sown/i 7 Fleet” ygnlgw is N 7 vein ("Sirl’meni for measuring -philia i attraction For somn/o V 5l¢eP ventricul/o ventricle , , ,_ _._,'~,’,l,e",‘{5 phleb/o vein son/0 . 5°de ._ ,_ (belly «3999th PF9C¢§$ 9t meqsuring (553576” ‘ exaggeratedlear isms!“ i"YQlEU'Qr)’.$9tll[99ll99 vertebr/o , vertebra small or sensitivity sperm/o spermr(seed) vesic/o bladder or sac a, ,9??? 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Quick Study Reference - Medical Terminology The Language of...

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