Acid_Base_Review_Sheet

Acid_Base_Review_Sheet - Fundamental Acid-Base Chemistry...

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Fundamental Acid-Base Chemistry Review I. Acid-Base Theories Several acid-base theories have been proposed to explain the acidic and basic properties of substances. Arrhenius Thoery (1859-1927): The earliest and simplest classification proposed by the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius. By this theory an acid is any substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions, H + . EXAMPLE: HCl (g) + H 2 O → H + (aq) + Cl (aq) By this theory a base is any substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions, OH - . EXAMPLE: NaOH (aq) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Brønsted-Lowry Theory: In 1923, Johannes Brønsted, and in 1924, Thomas Lowry, working independently, proposed a new system now known as the Brønsted-Lowry theory. By this theory an acid is any substance which can donate a proton. EXAMPLE: HCN + H 2 O CN - + H 3 O + (Acid) (Base) (Conj. Base) (Conj. Acid) By this theory a base is any substance which can accept a proton.
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