Thursday Mar. 10, 2005
Answer all 5 questions; each is worth 20 points.
: The first 3 questions are closed
book and are separate from the last 2 which are open book questions relating to cases.
(2 pts each)
: give concise, accurate definitions
or descriptions of terms.
Cellular fat accumulation (droplets), leading to fatty
liver; resulting from excess energy intake, but not alcohol per se.
B-cell—lymphocyte; antibody-producing cells in circulation; derived from bone (marrow) or
bursa equivalent; part of humoral immunity.
T-cell—lymphocyte derived from thymus; responsible for cell-mediated immunity; responds
initially to infectious agents; different types, e.g., T-helper, T-suppressor, killer.
immune defense against microbes and cancer.
lipodystrophy—abnormal distribution of fat in the body, esp. in AIDS patients (on HAART),
such as buffalo humps, sallow cheeks & thin arms;
lymphadenopathy—enlarged or swollen lymph nodes that are firm, easily palpable(at
reachable locations), and typically tender; result from stimulation of immune system by
microbes, etc., resulting in increased numbers of lymphocytes.
HIV—human immunodeficiency virus.
The retrovirus responsible for AIDS that attacks
especially T-helper cells and reduces T-helper cell concentration in blood.
oncogene—mutated form of normal genes that contribute to cancer, especially to
uncontrolled and increased cell divisions or proliferation, i.e., overproduction of cells that
lead to cancer, or to loss of suppressor functions.
Promoter (inducer) and suppressor genes.
ecchymoses—bruises or black and blue marks resulting from damaged arteries or capillaries,
especially visible on the skin at various locations in the body that permit red cells to release
hemoglobin; heme metabolism contributes to color changes.
Often result from nutrient def.
The drug cocktail (3 drugs typically) used to
slow replication of HIV in host cells, esp. T-helper cells, and to stop or slow the progression
Enzyme bound in lumen of capillaries supplying blood to organs
throughout the body that degrades TGs (TAGs) to fatty acids and glycerol which are taken up
by the cells of the specific tissues, e.g., adipocytes.