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NUTR_120_2nd_Test_3_10_05_Key

NUTR_120_2nd_Test_3_10_05_Key - NUTR 120 2nd Test Thursday...

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NUTR 120 2nd Test Name _____________________ KEY _____________________ Thursday Mar. 10, 2005 Pledge __________________________________________________ Signature Answer all 5 questions; each is worth 20 points. Part I : The first 3 questions are closed book and are separate from the last 2 which are open book questions relating to cases. 1. (2 pts each) Definitions : give concise, accurate definitions or descriptions of terms. a. NASH—n on-a lcoholic s teatoh epatitis. Cellular fat accumulation (droplets), leading to fatty liver; resulting from excess energy intake, but not alcohol per se. Not inflammatory. b. B-cell—lymphocyte; antibody-producing cells in circulation; derived from bone (marrow) or bursa equivalent; part of humoral immunity. c. T-cell—lymphocyte derived from thymus; responsible for cell-mediated immunity; responds initially to infectious agents; different types, e.g., T-helper, T-suppressor, killer. Orchestrate immune defense against microbes and cancer. d. lipodystrophy—abnormal distribution of fat in the body, esp. in AIDS patients (on HAART), such as buffalo humps, sallow cheeks & thin arms; metabolic dysregulation of glucose & fats e. lymphadenopathy—enlarged or swollen lymph nodes that are firm, easily palpable(at reachable locations), and typically tender; result from stimulation of immune system by microbes, etc., resulting in increased numbers of lymphocytes. f. HIV—human immunodeficiency virus. The retrovirus responsible for AIDS that attacks especially T-helper cells and reduces T-helper cell concentration in blood. g. oncogene—mutated form of normal genes that contribute to cancer, especially to uncontrolled and increased cell divisions or proliferation, i.e., overproduction of cells that lead to cancer, or to loss of suppressor functions. Promoter (inducer) and suppressor genes. h. ecchymoses—bruises or black and blue marks resulting from damaged arteries or capillaries, especially visible on the skin at various locations in the body that permit red cells to release hemoglobin; heme metabolism contributes to color changes. Often result from nutrient def. i. HAART—h ighly a ctive a nti-retroviral t herapy. The drug cocktail (3 drugs typically) used to slow replication of HIV in host cells, esp. T-helper cells, and to stop or slow the progression of AIDS. j. LPL—l ipop rotein l ipase. Enzyme bound in lumen of capillaries supplying blood to organs throughout the body that degrades TGs (TAGs) to fatty acids and glycerol which are taken up by the cells of the specific tissues, e.g., adipocytes. 1
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2. (10 pts each) Biochemical/Metabolic Pathways [Use backside if needed] a. Explain alterations in fat metabolism under conditions of usual excess energy consumption over the long-term. Specific questions: i. Name two storage forms of energy macronutrients that are increased following a meal: Glycogen from carbohydrates (liver esp.) & TGs from carbs and fats esp. (adipose tissue) ii. State two specific metabolic substrate types used by fat cells, resulting from excess energy intake, that are used in TG synthesis; then state how each is modified prior to final TG synthesis.
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