chapter 2 - CHAPTER 2 HEREDITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT GENOTYPE...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 2 HEREDITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT GENOTYPE: SET OF GENES THAT A PERSON INHERITS FROM HIS OR HER PARENTS AND THAT DETERMINES SUCH CHARACTERISTICS AS HEIGHT AND EYE COLOR PHENOTYPE: OBSERVABLE AND MEASURABLE GENETIC EXPRESSION OF AN INDIVIDUALS PHYSICAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS GENOTYPE INTERACTS WITH ENVIRONMENT TO PRODUCE PHENOTYPE THE PROCESS OF GENETIC TRANSMISSION ZYGOTE: RESULTS FROM THE UNION OF THE MALE AND FEMALE GAMETES, EACH OF WHICH CARRY GENETIC INFORMATION EGG (OVUM): LARGEST CELL IN THE HUMAN BODY SPERM: SMALLEST CELL IN THE HUMAN BODY CHROMOSOMES AND GENES WHEN THE SPERM AND THE EGG UNITE, 23 CHROMOSOMES FROM EACH JOIN TO CREATE 23 CHROMOSOME PAIRS CHROMOSOME: CARRY GENETIC INFORMATION THAT HELPS DIRECT DEVELOPMENT MEIOSIS: 23 CHROMOSOME PAIRS SPLIT CROSS OVER: EQUIVALENT SECTIONS OF HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES RANDOMLY SWITCH PLACES MITOSIS: CELL DUPLICATES ITS CHROMOSOMES AND DIVIDES INTO DAUGHTER CELLS THAT HAVE THE EXACT NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES AS THEIR PARENT CELL ( 46) GENES, DNA, AND PROTEINS DNA: STORES GENETIC INFORMATION AND TRANSMITS IT DURING REPRODUCTION BINDING ELEMENT OF CHROMOSOME MADE UP OF NUCLEOTIDE NUCLEOTIDE: COMPOUND CONSISTING OF N-BASE, A SIMPLE SUGAR, AND A PHOSPHATE GROUP GENE: CODE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CERTAIN KINDS OF PROTEINS GENETIC INFLUENCES ON DEVELOPMENT TRANSMISION OF TRAITS ALLELES: ALTERNATE FORMS OF GENES ONE FROM THE MOTHER AND ONE FROM THE FATHER HOMOZYGOUS: IF THE ALLELES FROM BOTH PARENTS ARE THE SAME (AA, BB) HETEROZYGOUS: 2 ALLELES ARE DIFFERENT (AB) CODOMINANCE: PATTERN IN WHICH HETEROZYGOUS ALLELES EXPRESSTHE VARIANTS OF THE TRAITS FOR WHICH THEY CODE SIMULTANEOUSLY AND WITH EQUAL FORCE DOMINANT: MORE POWERFUL OF THE TWO ALLELES IN A HETEROZYGOUS COMBINATION RECCESSIVE: WEAKER OF TWO ALLELES IN A HETEROZYGOUS COMBINAITON GENES ON THE SEX CHROMOSOME SEX CHROMOSOMES: 23 RD PAIR OF CHROMOSOMES THAT DETERMINE SEX; MALE (XY), FEMALE (XX) X-LINKED GENES: GENES THAT ARE CARRIED ON THE X CHROMOSOME AND THAT, IN MALES, MAY HAVE NO ANALOGOUS GENES ON THE Y CHROMOSOME HEMOPHELIA: DISORDER CAUSED BY AN X-LINKED RECCESSIVE GENE IN WHICH BLOOD DOES NOT CLOT; MALES > FEMALES INTERACTIONS AMONG GENES...
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chapter 2 - CHAPTER 2 HEREDITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT GENOTYPE...

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