Notes 2 - PSYC326Midterm2 Ch. 20:07 o o...

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PSYC326 Midterm 2 20:07 Ch. 5 – Methods in Neuroscience Approaches to understanding the relation between brain and behavior Manipulate brain function to see how it changes behavior o Lesions – surgical manipulation o Pharmacology – drug based manipulation Permanent, or temporary o TMS – transcranial magnetic stimulation Manipuluate behavior to see how it changes brain function o fMRI, PET pinpoint areas of increased activation (more action potentials) o Recording electrodes (EEG) Provides more large scale picture of changes in electricity o Microdialysis Chemical analysis technique, (usually used on animals, because  invasive), measure chemical changes as a result of manipulation of  behavior Lesions (everything is limited to animal-based research) Ablation, another word for lesioning o Surgical – remove pieces of brain
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long-scale, days later you see the effects o Excitotoxic – kill receptors Glutamate (excitatory neurotransmitters) have very sensitive receptors,  if you overstimulate you can kill the neurons without ever removing  anything Study Design o Need control group: “sham lesion group” Put the rat through the exact same surgical procedure but don’t  actually take out the piece, or overstimulate  Use saline – placebo – instead of actually introducing the chemical, or  leave tissue there  o Why is this necessary to control for? Surgery is traumatizing Reversible lesions o Temporary lesions with chemicals o Growing trend, more chemicals are now known to produce temporary  lesions – block receptors/channels for a period of time You can knock out locations of a brain (chunk) or certain neurons that  use a neurotransmitter o Therefore a given animal is not out of the picture after the surgery This provides a before and after picture of an animal who has been  lesioned o EX: ESPINA-MARCHANT, P. ET AL. (2006) Spatial awareness: what is where in your environment? Rats are very good at monitoring their environment Investigating: contribution of part of the parietal lobe to an established  area known to be involved in spatial memory (hippocampus) Hippocampus has “place cells,” they fire in certain patterns in  unique response to certain locations If you could monitor an animal as it faces a certain way, certain  patterns active — as you turn the animal, new patterns
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“place cells” represent space around the animal, respond to  orientation/environment We know the parietal lobe important for spatial knowledge People with damage get lost easily, can’t find their way around  — spatial deficits
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