dsf - Data Forwarding in Extremely Low Duty-Cycle Sensor...

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Unformatted text preview: Data Forwarding in Extremely Low Duty-Cycle Sensor Networks with Unreliable Communication Links Yu Gu and Tian He Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Minnesota, Twin Cities { yugu,tianhe } @cs.umn.edu Abstract In extremely low duty-cycle sensor networks, end-to-end communications cannot afford to maintain an always-awake communication backbone. Low duty-cycle, accompanied by the unreliable nature of wireless communication, makes it es- sential to design a new data forwarding scheme for such net- works, so as to achieve network energy efficiency, reliability, and timeliness in an integrated fashion. In this work, we introduce the concept of Dynamic Switch- based Forwarding (DSF) that optimizes the (i) expected data de- livery ratio, (ii) expected communication delay, or (iii) expected energy consumption. DSF is designed for networks with pos- sibly unreliable communication links and predetermined node communication schedules. Interestingly, we reveal that allow- ing opportunistic looping can actually reduce the end-to-end de- lay. To our knowledge, these are the most encouraging results to date in this new research direction. In this paper, DSF is evaluated with a theoretical analysis, extensive simulation, and physical testbed consisting of 20 MicaZ motes. Results reveal the remarkable advantage of DSF in extremely low duty-cycle sensor networks in comparison to three well-known solutions (ETX [3], PRR D [19] and DESS [16]). We also demonstrate our solution defaults into ETX in always-awake networks and DESS in perfect-link networks. Categories and Subject Descriptors C.2.1 [ Computer Communication Networks ]: Network Architecture and Design Wireless Communication ; C.2.2 [ Computer Communication Networks ]: Network Protocols General Terms Algorithms, Performance, Design Keywords DSF, lossy radio link, low duty-cycle, data forwarding This work was supported in part by NSF grant CNS-0615063 and CNS-0626614. We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers and our paper shepherd Philip Levis for the invaluable comments that significantly improved this work. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. SenSys07, November 69, 2007, Sydney, Australia. Copyright 2007 ACM 1-59593-763-6/07/0011 ...$5.00 1 Introduction Many sensor network applications need to last a long time with a limited energy supply. To resolve the conflict between limited energy and application lifetime requirements, it is nec- essary to reduce node communication and sensing duty cycles....
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dsf - Data Forwarding in Extremely Low Duty-Cycle Sensor...

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