Lecture - Oct 14

Lecture - Oct 14 - Life Cycle of a Basidiomycete Fusion of...

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Life Cycle of a Basidiomycete Fusion of 2 hypha o different mating types during plasmogamy Dikaryotic secondary mycelium forms ; basidiocarp (fruiting body) develops and basidia form along gills Karyogamy occurs producing diploid zygote nucleus Meiosis produces 4 haploid nuclei which become basidiospores When basidiospores germinate – form haploid primary mycelia of different mating types Sexual meiosis -> Haploid thallus (n) (+) and (-) -> Dikaryosis stage (n + n) -> Basidiocarp structure forms (secondary structure) -> Basidia develop on gills (n + n) -> Zygote (2n) -> 4 haploid nuclei (n) -> etc Basidiomycete Fruiting Bodies Decomposers - Most fungi are decomposers o Break down organic compounds; dead organisms etc into simpler nutrients (water CO2) that can be recycled - Important for animals that don’t break down cellulose and lignin o Chytrids in cow’s stomachs o Symbiosis as fungi live in nutrient-rich environment Symbionts - Mycorrhizae: mutualistic between fungi and plant root - Lichens: symbiotic combination of fungus and photoautotroph (alga or cyanobacterium) Photoautotroph provides fungus with organic compounds through photosynthesis, shelter, water, minerals. Fungus provides protection Lichen: soredia are asexual reproductive structures consisting of clusters of algal or cyanobacterial cells enclosed by fungal hyphae Useful lichens? - Tolerate extremes of temperature and moisture - Can live in the most un-inhabitable environment - Contribute to the ecosystem: o Sources of food for herds etc o Produce color pigments e.g. litmus acid-base indicator, dyes or woolens
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o Very sensitive to toxins and used to test air quality Fungi are used in: - Foods (mushrooms, morels, truffles) o Magic mushrooms with hallucinogen related to LSD - Production of beer, wine, bread (yeast) - Producing cheeses and soy sauce o Penicillium – chese; o Aspergillus ferments soybeans to produce soy (also vital amino acids to enrich rice) - Making citric acid and other industrial chemicals
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Lecture - Oct 14 - Life Cycle of a Basidiomycete Fusion of...

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