Unformatted text preview: 1. Draw the cerveau isole produced by Bremer in 1937? How was the cat affected by this brain transection in terms of its body movements, brain waves, pupillary dilation, and ability to visually track a moving object? 2. Draw an encephale isole? How was the cat affected by this brain transection in terms of its body movements, brain waves, pupillary dilation, and ability to visually track a moving object? 3. What conclusion did Bremer reach about how the brain regulated sleep? Was he correct? 4. Draw the brain transection that Moruzzi and Magoun made on cats and describe the effect it had on their sleep/wake cycles? Describe the model of sleep/wakefulness developed by Moruzzi and Magoun and explain how their model integrates their findings with those of Bremer. What other evidence supported this model? 1. Activity in which area of the brain is DIRECTLY responsible for the states of consciousness known as sleep and wakefulness (in other words, where does consciousness reside?). What 4 subcortical areas of the brain are actually known to be indirectly responsible for being awake (waking centers)? Draw the fish brain (or multiple fish brains) and label all relevant areas. Include pertinent fiber tracts and the areas they synapse upon. What neurotransmotor is secreted into the cortex from each of the subcortical areas? 2. What is cortical desynchrony? Which neurotransmitter is thought to promote cortical desynchrony? By what mechanism in the cortex does this neurotransmitter exert its effects upon cortical desynchrony?? 3. What is vigilance? Which subcortical area controls vigilance? How does amphetamine make a person more vigilant? 4. Where does serotonin input into the cortex come from? What role does serotonin play when you are awake. What happens in general to serotonin levels when you are asleep? What are two behavioral treatments to boost serotonin levels in clinically depressed individuals? Why would you want to boost serotonin levels in this context? 5. Where is the tuberomammillary nucleus? How does it influence cortical activity patterns? What neurotransmitter do neurons from this nucleus secrete directly into the cortex? What neurotransmitter input into the cortex is indirectly influenced by this nucleus? Explain why cold and allergy medications often cause sleepiness. How do they reduce the symptoms of the cold or allegy? How have some of the newer antihistamines been changed to eliminate the sleepiness side effect? 6. How do these 4 subcortical arousal areas relate to the anatomy predicted by Moruzzi and Magoun's model? ...
View Full Document
- Spring '09
- Neuroscience, serotonin levels, cortical desynchrony, brain transection