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ANTH 202- Study Guide #1 Terms

ANTH 202- Study Guide #1 Terms - PH I DTR Pr oblem H ypot...

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PHI - DTR Problem Hypothesis Implications Data Test Revise ANTH 202: Study Guide for Exam #1 (9/24/09) AD - anno domini, which is equivalent to CE (commonera/current era/christian era) Agency Theory - Theory that emphasizes the centrality of individuals living in society as the basic unit of archeology. It stresses the agency of individuals--the purposeful actions of the people who lived in the past. The basic unit of archeology is individual, not society. Alfred Kroeber - Cultural anthropologist Anthropology - The study of all aspects of humankind-- biological, cultural, and linguistic; extant and extinct -- employing an all encompassing holistic approach. Archaeological conservation ethic : Dig Only What You Must Archaeological ethics Archaeological record - The documentation of artifacts and other material remains, along with their contexts recovered from archeological sites. Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) - Passed in 1979, this act 1). Prohibits the excavation or removal of artifacts from federal property without permission 2). Prohibits the sale, exchange, or export of artifacts acquired illegally from federal property 3). Increased the penalties for violation of the act over those of the Antiques Act by allowing judges to take into account the value of the artifacts as well as the cost of restoration and repair of the site. Archaeology - The study of the past through the systematic recovery and analysis of material remains. Artifacts - Objects that show traces of human manufacture. Including stone, bone, metal tools, beads, other ornaments, pottery, artwork, religious and sacred items. Attribute - A particular characteristic of an artifact that distinguishes it from others on the basis of size, surface texture, form, material, method of manufacture, and design patterns. B.P. - Before Present Botanical remains - wood and seed artifact; require special excavation method - flotation Charles Darwin - developed the theory of evolution in The Origin of Species. Evolution - idea that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors through the process called natural selection. 1
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Charles Lyell - A geologist who was a proponent of uniformarianism, as the accepted theory for interpreting geologic and natural history of the Earth in his book Principles of Geology Classificatory-descriptive period - 1840-1914 Classificatory-historical period - 1914-1960 Concern with culture history Coprolites - is fossilized animal dung. Coprolites are classified as trace fossils as opposed to body fossils, as they give evidence for the animal's behaviour (in this case, diet) rather than morphology. Cultural Resource Management (CRM) - A professional field that conducts activities, including archeology, related to compliance with legislation aimed at conserving cultural resources.
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