L2 - ANTHROPOLOGY 202(500 INTRODUCTION TO ARCHAEOLOGY...

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1 ANTHROPOLOGY 202 (500): INTRODUCTION TO ARCHAEOLOGY Lecture 2, 09/03/09: Diverse Approaches to Archaeology and the Structure of Archaeological Inquiry I. Anthropological Approach: Comprehensive and holistic perspective directed toward understanding humankind—as manifested by culture —in the past, present, and future A. Culture (Thomas & Kelly): learned, shared, & symbolically based system of knowledge; includes traditions, kinship, languages, religion, customs, beliefs B. Culture as adaptation is one of two major research strategies designed to determine how and why cultures are the way they appear to be 1. Emphasis on environment, technology, and economics 2. Culture as the way that human cultures adapt 3. Associated cultural materialism and processual approaches , more readily measurable using the scientific method C. Culture as ideas (i.e., ideational) is the second of two major research strategies designed to determine how and why cultures are the way they appear to be 1. 2. Associated with humanistic approaches (e.g., structural anthropology) II. Archaeology is grounded in a Scientific Perspective (a la Webster, the scientific method is: [a] recognition and formulation of a problem; [2] collection of data through observation and experiment; and [3] formulation and testing of hypotheses), as per Thomas and Kelly text, Archaeology: Down to Earth: A. “Science,” a systematic body of knowledge, develop ideas that can be criticized, evaluated & eventually modified/replaced by ideas that explain the archaeological
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L2 - ANTHROPOLOGY 202(500 INTRODUCTION TO ARCHAEOLOGY...

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