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Chapter 14 Outline

Chapter 14 Outline - Chapter 14 Nonrenewable Energy Sources...

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Chapter 14: Nonrenewable Energy Sources 14.1 Energy Use: Our Growing Dependence on Nonrenewable Fuels Energy use in the United States has shifted considerably over the years. Today, the United States depends on a variety of fuel sources. Fossil fuels provide the bulk of the energy. Industry and business consume the majority of the fuel. Transportation is another major energy consumer. Global Energy Comsumption Like the United States, most MDCs rely primarily on fossil fuels. LDCs depend on fossil fuels as well, but they also receive a substantial amount of energy from various renewable fuels, especially biomass. Americans make up a small portion of the world’s population but account for a very large percentage of the total energy consumption. 14.2 What Is Energy? Energy Comes in Many Forms Some examples: coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, wood, ethanol, biodiesel, sunlight, wind, hydropower, and geothermal energy. Energy can be renewable or nonrenewable. Energy Can Be Converted from One Form to Another Heat, light, and electricity are the most common by-products of these conversions. Energy Conversions Allow Us to Put Energy to Good Use Energy Can Neither Be Created nor Destroyed This is the First Law of Thermodynamics. Energy is Degraded When it is Converted from One Form to Another The Second Law of Thermodynamics says, in simple terms, that anytime one converts a form of energy to another form, the high-quality (or concentrated) energy resource is transformed into low-quality energy. During the process, some heat and light are “lost.” No Energy Conversion is 100% Efficient, Not Even Close to It! To get the most out of our primary energy sources, we must reduce the number of conversions along the path. Energy is the Ability to Do Work This is why energy is valuable to us. 14.3 Fossil Fuels: Analyzing Our Options
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Energy does not come cheaply. In addition to the economic costs, society pays a huge environmental price for its use of nonrenewable energy in damage to the health of its people and to the environment. These impacts arise at every phase of energy production. The most significant impacts arise from extraction and end use. Crude Oil Oil is extracted from deep wells on the seafloor and on land; it is often found in association with natural gas. After it is extracted, crude oil is heated and distilled, a process that separates the components of oil, which produces useful fuel and nonfuel by- products. The major impacts of the oil energy system come from oil spills and from combustion of oil and its by-products.
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