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Unformatted text preview: HEP Gas Coal Oil Biomass Nuclear In the past some resources have dominated society(ies), but they are not dominant now. Dominance of a particular resource has led archaeologists to name periods of time in prehistory periods – stone age, copper age, bronze age, iron age. Though all of these resources still used, none dominates now as it did in prehistoric time. (Could expand on copper) The importance of a resource varies over time. In the stone age, various types of stone were used for axe heads, arrow heads, knife and scrapers, we still use stone, but it’s importance as a resource to cut wood and butcher meat is now less than iron and other metals . (> slide to illustrate this point ) The importance of resources also vary over space. Around 1900 when industrialisation was in full swing in North America and Europe,industrialists and many other people, considered coal, newly-discovered oil, metal ores etc as very important resources; but amongst the indigenous peoples of the Amazon Basin, central Africa and SE Asia wood and stone were primary resources for fuel, ploughs, axes and arrowheads (> slide to illustrate this point ) Globalization is leading to more closely shared notions of what things are resources Who would cut down a tree with a stone axe now, when you can use a chain saw. Only an experimental archaeologist? (are there indigenous peoples with stone age technologies?) The stone knife (top R) is about 6000 years old, from Japan and was used to cut meat. Japan now makes a brand of kitchen knives reputed to be the best in world – Global – (and they are really very, very good and very, very expensive). What has replaced the flint-tipped arrow for slaughtering meat in Britain (where this tip is from?) – just like the US – modern farming methods and slaughterhosues.-What do we mean by the lithosphere? Coal, oil, natural gas, precious metals (gold, silver), other minerals (iron), rock/stone for building, clay (for brickmaking, pottery)-What do we mean by the pedosphere? 1 Examples soil for cultivation (or rather two important components of the soil – nutrients like N, P, K – and the water in the soil-What do we mean by the biosphere? Wood for lumber or fuel, grass/herbs for grazing, natural medications-What do we mean by the hydrosphere? Water for drinking, industrial uses, fish farming-What do we mean by the atmosphere? Air to breathe Apart from natural resources, what other classes of resources are there? People or human resources, Money or financial resources, Machines and equipment Side issue: categories and thesholds (> next slide on clay for brickmaking ) Clay is used from making bricks all over the world. But is clay a natural resource from pedosphere (as is the case in most clay for brickmaking in India and Pakistan) or a natural resource from the rocks beneath the soil – the lithosphere (as is the case in the clay being extracted for brickmaking in northern England)?...
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This note was uploaded on 11/03/2009 for the course GEOS 105 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.
- Spring '08