second exam study guide

second exam study guide - Liberalism in the 20th century -...

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Liberalism in the 20 th century - The lone entrepreneur who runs his business gave way to corporation, the trust, the syndicate and the conglomerate. - Historical Development : - the faith in individual competition severely tested by the Great depression, 1030; blamed the depression on capitalism and turned to socialism, communism or fascism. John Maynard Keynes (general theory of employment and money) – argued gov. should use taxing and spending powers to prevent depressions and maintain a healthy economy; when prices are raising, gov. should raise taxes to reduce consumer spending and prevent inflation, when no inflation- gov should lower taxes, increase spending on social programs to stimulate the economy and maintain high levels of employment - active gov. management of economic matters – welfare liberals and advanced capitalist countries approach. Martin Luther King Jr . and others of Civil Rights Movement pointed out liberal promises of liberty and equally were unfulfilled for African Americans. King also called for gov. actions to provide social and economy opportunities – accepted for welfare liberals but not neoclassical. The turmoil of 60s – another challenge for welfare liberals- the new left = social in its orientation rejected absolute communism and consumer capitalism; but accepted the liberal emphasizes on individual rights and liberties and supported gov. programs that promoted equally and opportunity; they complained that liberal gov. protected the interests of capitalist corporations; sustained that most people were consumers when they should be encouraged to be active citizens – called for participatory democracy – a society where average people would be able to exercise great control over decisions that affect their lives. - welfare liberalism –dominant ideology in western world beginning in 20 century, 1970s, 80s, a mixture of neoclassical liberalism and conservatism promoted by Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan. - Philosophical considerations - Rawls and justice. According to Rawls the old liberal devise of the social contract can help us discover the principles (page 74-75) - Nozik and the minimal state – (anarchy state and utopia) believes that all individuals have rights that is wrong to violate them; in the state of natural individuals have rights but lack protection so people should subscribe to a private protective agency only if they wish. the private agency will grow and develop and will serve everyone becoming the size of a modern nation state; will become for all practical purposes a state in itself but will perform only the function of a protective agency ( minimal state ) and no ones rights will be violated. Because people will have the choice of not paying the taxes of protection. Paying taxes to the state for welfare programs is equivalent to forced labor and therefore a violation of individual rights. Nozik holds that gov. should protect against force and fraud but should leave us alone to compete in free market economy. People
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This note was uploaded on 11/03/2009 for the course POS POS 210 taught by Professor Simhony during the Fall '07 term at ASU.

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second exam study guide - Liberalism in the 20th century -...

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