3rd exam study guide

3rd exam study guide - 3rd exam study guide Chapter 6 The...

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3 rd exam study guide Chapter 6 The revisionists - turn of the century some Marxists favored revising Marxism because economic and political development. - Edward Bernstein – (German Social Democratic Party) – believed that some aspects of Marx’s theory were either false or out of date => reject or revised them. - Fabian socialists – favored a strategy of gradual reform as the best way of creating a socialist society in Britain. - ↓ Bernstein (Evolutionary Socialism) believed that an evolutionary path to socialism was morally and politically preferable to a violent revolutionary one. The mark of a genuinely scientific theory is that its truth is open to question and criticism; his criticism is: Moral –Marx and the latter Marxists concerned too little with ethics and morality. 1 st mistake : Marx had maintained that ethical values and beliefs belong to the ideological superstructure of society and therefore depend upon the economic base = > ethical views and values are dependent upon non-ethical factors; they can be effects but never causes of social actions. Bernstein – from Kant the belief that one’s will is free from outside influences/ causes => people are free to choose => they have a duty to make morally responsible choices ( who start from the convictions that human beings belong to the kingdom of ends => is wrong to treat one as an instrument to achieve goals). 2 nd mistake : Marxist socialism had focused on the ultimate goal – the coming of a communist society- without worrying about the morality/immorality of the means used to arrive there. Bernstein – socialists should think about the morality of the means by which they propose to bring about a socialist society; a society born in blood unlikely to be peaceful and democratic + ends and means are bound together/ a just society cannot be created by unjust means / a democratic society cannot be formed by undemocratic means => preferred nonviolent means . He believed Marx focused upon distant aims rather than on shorter-term goals - naïve and dangerously utopian = > he believed in a “practical political socialism” by placing near aims in front of distant ones. Political – Marx was erroneous in his political predictions < = the labor movement in Germany and elsewhere grew larger and stronger because the working –class males could now vote + the socialist parties that maintained close ties with trade unions and other working class orgs became stronger. The state became the workers ally and guardian = > the possibility of a peaceful transition to socialism . → Economic – emergent economic facts and trends that tented to undermine Marx’s theory (few wealthy the rest really poor = > revolution) – didn’t happened, on the contrary they became richer. These improvements would continue as long as workers organized themselves in trade unions and political parties. Soviet Marxism- Leninism
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3rd exam study guide - 3rd exam study guide Chapter 6 The...

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