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Unformatted text preview: POS 350 Comparative Politics Study Guide for the Final Exam Religion and Politics (The Middle East) 1) Religion - religion is a system of beliefs and practices oriented toward the sacred or supernatural, through which the life experiences of groups of people are given meaning and direction 2) Middle East main religions - Judaism, Christianity and Islam 3) The Law of Return (Israel) every Jew had the right to emigrate to Israel and become a citizen 4) Wahhabism - Wahabism is a conservative 18th century reform movement of Sunni Islam founded by Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, after whom the movement is named. Wahhabism formed the creed upon which the kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded and is the dominant form of Islam found in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Qatar, as well as some pockets of Somalia, Algeria and Mauritania. It is now often referred to as a &quot;sect&quot; or &quot;branch&quot; of Islam. 5) Major arguments of secularization theory and their critics Marx, Berger, Casanova and Durkheim 1. religion decline 2. privatization 3. Differentiation 6) An example study for the cultural approach to the study of religion and politics : Interpretive Approach - Culture is defined as the collective meanings that groups create, share, and symbolically express.- The role of myth and ritual, - The meaning of social action and - A focus on the socially constructed nature of knowledge and society, Method: participant observation The Culture Theory Approach- Focuses on typological distinctions between subgroups said to exist in every polity. - The groups are differentiated by two criteria: (1) the extent to which individual behavior within the group is socially prescribed (termed grid) and (2) the degree to which persons are locked into membership in their group (termed group).- The five identified social relation patterns in any society: vary from apathetic (fatalism: high grid, low group), to intense concern for hierarchy (collectivism: high grid, high group), to competitive (individualism: low grid, low group), to equalitarian (egalitarianism: high group, low grid), and, finally, to autonomous (retreatism: neutral group and grid)- Microculture is thus the type of choice (that is, hierarchical, equalitarian, and so on) that is associated with a particular relationship pattern, whereas macroculture is the relative strength of the patterns....
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- Fall '07
- Comparative Politics