Study guide exam 2

Study guide exam 2 - Religion study guide 2 Hinduism - the...

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Religion study guide 2 Hinduism - the oldest and most complex – it traces the beginning of some of its religious themes and forms to the third millennium B.C.E. - most diverse and various: its scope varies from simple animism to some of the most exalted and most elaborated philosophical systems. - The source for 3 other religions: Jainism and Buddhism (6 century B.C.E.) and Sikhism (15 th century) - Hinduism has no identifiable founder. - “Hindu” comes for the Sanskrit name for the river Indus, Sindhu; now it applies to the religion of the people of India. - Hinduism flourished in Southeast Asia in 17 th to 15 th century, and survives in Indonesian island of Bali. Today, Hindu communities exist in Europe, Malaysia, Africa, and n America. - Beginnings: the combination between the Aryan people’s religion and the religion of the native people for India, during the second millennium B.C.E. - The Pre-Aryan natives of India were presented as uncivilized and barbaric in the only source - the Vedic literature, and. After 1920s archeological excavations showed an advanced civilization in the Indus valley, around 2500 B.C.E. (written language). The found statues and amulets – interpreted as fertility gods and goddesses. Some of them sit in the lotus position that was later adopted by yoga Hinduism. - The word Aryan applied to large groups of people in the late 19 th century when it was used to depict a family of languages. It’s a Sanskrit word meaning “the noble ones” – applied to a group of migrants who moved into the Indus valley in the second millennium B.C.E. (now Iran). - There is not much information regarding the early Aryans. Between 1750 and 1200 B.C.E. they came in migratory waves into India, conquering or moving in the pre-Aryan cities. They were organized along tribal lines and were lead by chieftains called rajas. Around the 6 th century they settled in the cities in the Indus valley. Their society developed in three basic classes called varnas : the highly regarded priests who served the cults of various Aryan cities were called Brahmins; the chieftains and the warriors were called were called Kshatriyas ; the commoners and merchants were called Vaishyas; a fourth group formed by those conquered pre-Aryans was called Shudras. - The Aryan religion: info comes from the Vedic literature; a polytheistic religion similar to that of the Indo-European people; the gods personifications of the various natural forces, such as the storm, the sun, the moon, and the fertility of the soil (=> roots in an ancient animistic religion). The chief manner of worshiping – sacrifice (animal sacrifice or dairy products were burned on open altars) - Angi – the god of fire was their connection to other gods. -
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Study guide exam 2 - Religion study guide 2 Hinduism - the...

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