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Bio Forces of Evolution Notes

Bio Forces of Evolution Notes - Evolutionary Forces Text...

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Evolutionary Forces Text © Kurland, 2005
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Mutation Mutagens: mutation inducing agents: ionizing radiation, chemicals, … Random!
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Point Mutation: Base-Pair substitutions Errors: DNA synthesis/repair EX: Sickle-Cell Anemia (More Later)
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Original DNA: AAA TTT CCC Phe Lys Gly Deletion: AAT TTC CC_ Leu Lys
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Original DNA: AAA TTT CCC Phe Lys Gly Insertion: ACA ATT TCC C_ _ Cys Stop Arg
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Original DNA: AAA TTT CCC Phe Lys Gly Inversion: AAT TTA CCC Leu Asp Gly
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Neutral Mutation = Most Mutations! CAA CAT Val Val
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Ancestry: Europe Genetics: short arm, Chromosome 3 DNA Site: 3p21 32 base-pair deletion Frequency: p 14%, Africa = 0% Evolution: Deletion Mutation (700 ya) & Selection Bubonic Plague, Smallpox Epidemics Our Friend, Mutation: HIV AIDS & CCR5- 32
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Chromosome # Change: Translocation (Insertion), Inversion, Deletion Aneuploidy: 2N 4N, 6N … Meiotic Error = Non-Disjunction EX: Down Syndrome, Trisomy 21, 2n = 47
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Cognitive Impairment, Autism “Mongolian” eyes = upward slant Flattened face, small features & Unique ear shape Decreased muscle tone & bone laxity Cardiac defects Life-Expectancy: +50 Bioethics: Rearing or Elective Abortion? Down Syndrome, Trisomy 21
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Ancestry: ? Genetics: Trisomy (90%) Translocation (10%) Chromosome 21 Prevalence: 1/900 (0.11%) Birth Evolution: Chromosomal Mutation NB: β - Amyloid on Chromosome 21 Alzheimer’s Disease
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Gene Duplication: Unequal Crossing-Over Repeat short sequence of DNA Creation of new genes Modularity EX: Globin Gene Family, Haemoglobin
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Consequences of Mutation: Neutral/Deleterious/Beneficial
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