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Feb%2023%20posted - BIOL 112 The Biology of the cell:...

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Unformatted text preview: BIOL 112 The Biology of the cell: Course MAP Why are there cells? Diffusion What are cells? What chemical/structures are in cells? What roles do these have? Proteins Do everything in cells How are they made? How does a cell regulate what proteins to make? DNA stores the sequence information for protein synthesis. What causes changes in DNA: DNA replication, mutation and horizontal gene transfer Cells need to trap energy and get nutrients. How do cells make ATP? How do cells impact their environments? Review: Genotype and Phenotype 1. The properties of a protein are determined by the amino acid sequence of the protein. 2. The properties of a cell at any time are determined by the collection of proteins in the cell at that time. 3. The collection of proteins in the cell at any time is determined by the set of genes (protein coding regions) in the DNA and the pattern of gene expression at that time. Review: Genotype and Phenotype trp biosynthesis trpE trpD trpC trpB trpA Anthranilate Synthetase Indole-3 glycerol-P synthetase tryptophan synthetase Chorismate Anthranilate Phospho-ribosyl anthranilate enol-1-carboxy phenylamino-1 deoxyribulose phosphate indole-3-glycerol-P L-tryptophan 1 Review: Genotype and Phenotype trp biosynthesis PRS 1: Chorismate Anthranilate Phospho-ribosyl anthranilate enol-1-carboxy phenylamino-1 deoxyribulose phosphate indole-3-glycerol-P L-tryptophan Anthranilate Synthetase trpE trpD Indole-3 glycerol-P Synthetase trpC tryptophan Synthetase trpB trpA Which of the enzymes would you expect is missing in you? 2 Review: Information flow The sequence of amino acids in one type of protein is determined in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA for that protein. The sequences of nucleotides in the mRNA is determined by the sequences of nucleotides in the DNA gene for that protein. So it is the sequence of nucleotides and the sequence of amino acids that is the information . Because it is the sequence that is important, there must be signals that indicate start and (at least for making protein) stop. DNA RNA protein 1 PRS 2 (transcription): Review: Information flow Transcription : RNA polymerase synthesizes RNA 5 3 (rate of about 50 nucleotides per second) For transcription Start = promoter . Stop = terminator DNA promoter terminator + 1 5 UTR coding region start codon stop codon upstream downstream transcription coding region start codon stop codon 3 UTR 5 3 mRNA 2 Translation: Ribosome reads mRNA 5 3 Synthesizes protein N-terminus C-terminus....
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Feb%2023%20posted - BIOL 112 The Biology of the cell:...

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