March2009NutritionStartPosting

March2009NutritionStartPosting - The second part of the...

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The second part of the attitudinal survey will be open between March 23rd – April 8th. The survey is voluntary and confidential and students will be given 0.5 bonus marks for participating in the survey. If you have any questions please e-mail [email protected]
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METABOLISM AND NUTRITION Purpose: To understand what different types of cells/organisms use as nutrients, how they use them for growth, and effects this has on the environment
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Metabolism is composed of two parts Catabolic reactions : The chemical reactions the cell uses to generate energy and components for biosynthesis (such as carbon, bioelements, electrons) starting from nutrients acquired from the environment. Anabolic reactions : The chemical reactions the cell uses to build its components - this requires energy, so is linked to catabolism. Anabolic reactions are also called “biosynthetic reactions”.
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Nutrients Major /minor bioelements Nutrients Energy source Electron source TEA / electrons ATP ; NADPH Note coupling of anabolism and catabolism ADP ; NADP Metabolism is the sum of all biochemical reactions ( Anabolic and Catabolic) in the cell. Metabolism
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Classification: A cell’s requirements depend on its metabolic type
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Classification by energy used for ATP synthesis Phototrophs Heterotrophs Lithotrophs Use light energy Use organic Use inorganic molecules in molecules in chemical rxs chemical rxs e.g. glucose, a.a. NH 3 , H 2 , Fe Plants, bacteria eukaryotes prokaryotes chemoheterotrophs chemolithotrophs
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Organic vs. inorganic Organic molecules have a C–H bond, inorganic molecules don’t! Is CO 2 an organic molecule?
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Classification of cells by carbon source used Carbon – source Inorganic molecules (like CO 2 ) e.g. Plants, some bacteria, some archaea AUTOTROPHS Organic molecules (like glucose, DNA, proteins, amino acids) e.g . us, animals, some bacteria, some archaea HETEROTROPHS
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Use these terms to specify what an organism uses as C and energy sources What does a chemolithoautotroph use as energy and C-sources?
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What is the purpose of nutrition (of eating foods)? To get the energy and C-sources required by cells! What chemicals other than carbon would cells require? Remember cells are composed of molecules.
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Chemical elements are required to make monomers and macromolecules in cells C, H, O, N, P Deoxy- ribonucleotides DNA C, H, O Sugars Polysaccharide C, H, O, (N), (P) Fatty acids Lipid C, H, O, N, P Ribonucleotides RNA C, H, O, N, (S) Amino acids Protein Include elements Made of Monomers Macromolecule All bacteria must synthesize macromolecules. Some synthesize the monomers from scratch, others use them ready made from the environment. The structure of the molecules explains the cell’s requirements: C, H, O, N, P, and S. So, MAJOR BIOELEMENTS are C, H, O, N, P, S
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Nutrients: In order to grow, all cells require Chemical Elements ( Major-, Minor bioelements ) C, H, N, O, P, S ( these are required by all cells ); mainly C, H Zn +2 , Cu 2 , Ca 2 , Mg 2 , Fe +2 or +3 and others ( These are required for activity of various enzymes ) Energy Source Light Chemical
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This note was uploaded on 11/03/2009 for the course ECON 210 taught by Professor James during the Spring '09 term at UBC.

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March2009NutritionStartPosting - The second part of the...

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