7%20April%202009NutritionMetabolism

7%20April%202009NutritionMetabolism - Anabolism =...

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Unformatted text preview: Anabolism = Biosynthesis Using nutrients, ATP and NADPH to build up cellular components. Anabolism = Biosynthesis Use of ATP and NADPH in Biosynthetic reactions ATP is necessary because biosynthetic reactions generate order, decrease entropy. This requires energy. NADPH is necessary because the monomeric biomolecules synthesized are more reduced than the nutrients acquired. ATP and NADPH produced in catabolic reactions provide the energy and electrons necessary for anabolism. Anabolism = Biosynthesis 1) We talked about 2 electron carriers: NADPH used to reduce carbon C in anabolism. NAD + used to oxidize carbon C in catabolism. 2) In heterotrophs, nutrients might be complex amino acids, NTPs etc. can use some of these without degrading to CO 2 . 3) In lithotrophs, the carbon source is always CO 2 (inorganics are used as electron/energy donors and TEA). Anabolism / Catabolism interact A N A B O L I S M CELLULAR MACROMOLECULES SOURCES OF BIOELEMENTS NUTRIENTS C A T A B O L I S M ATP ADP PRODUCTS NUTRIENT NUTRIENT ELECTRON SOURCE ENERGY SOURCE TEA NADPH NADP + A N A B O L I S M CELLULAR MACROMOLECULES SOURCES OF BIOELEMENTS NUTRIENTS C A T A B O L I S M ATP ADP PRODUCTS NUTRIENT NUTRIENT ELECTRON SOURCE ENERGY SOURCE TEA TEA NADPH NADP + Anabolism = Biosynthesis 1) Key point: every reaction takes place on an enzyme nothing just happens. 2) Example we talked about: trp operon - encoded several enzymes that were involved in the biosynthesis of tryptophan. If one is missing or not working properly, tryptophan will not be made by the cell. Pathways. Coupled reactions: major concept in biology When ATP is used as energy to drive a reaction that otherwise would not occur (positive free energy change!), the energy is delivered directly to the reaction as ATP is converted to ADP. The same enzyme catalyzes the reaction and the dephosphorylation of the ATP. The reactions are coupled. When NADPH is used as a reductant, 2 e and and 1 H + are directly delivered to the reaction and NADPH is converted to NADP + . Again one enzyme both captures the electrons from NADPH and passes them on to the reactant being reduced. The reactions are coupled....
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7%20April%202009NutritionMetabolism - Anabolism =...

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