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Unformatted text preview: Important concepts to know: 1. Metabolism two parts: CATABOLISM breakdown of nutrients extract energy, electrons, synthesis of ATP and NADPH, and ANABOLISM buildup of cell parts, biosynthesis, consumes ATP and NADPH cells need sources of C, H, O, N, P and S for the various molecules found in a cell (i.e., amino acids, nucleotides etc). 2. REDOX reactions the electrons from one atom/molecule are transferred to another atom/molecule coupling redox reactions can release energy, which can be used to do work. Atoms and molecules containing the atoms have tendency to give up electrons (be oxidized) or to accept electrons (be reduced) its possible to compare the tendencies and rank them in a reduction potential understand how to use the REDOX table to identify which atom/molecule is giving up the electrons and which atom/molecule is accepting. 3. Electron transport chains (ETC) and proton gradients the ETC is a group of proteins/protein complexes in the cytoplasmic membrane (of bacteria, inner membrane of mitochondria and chloroplasts) - have a unique orientation so their activity (i.e., transferring electrons) is one way the proteins/protein complexes have redox potentials so that they can undergo redox reactions and can pass electrons from one to another. For some chemicals/protein, the electron is accompanied by a proton (H + ), but some of the ETC have iron sulfur molecules bound to them. Iron, Fe, can accept an electron without a proton, so the proton ends up being expelled across the membrane. In a subsequent step, the ETC could get another H + from the cytoplasm, and could expel it. Therefore, could have more than one H+ expelled per electron. This process of expelling H + creates the gradient of protons. 4. ATPase membrane bound structure that uses the energy of a proton gradient to do the work of synthesizing ATP from ADP and Pi. 5. Structure of ATP and why ATP is an energy carrier, and the hydrolysis of ATP releases energy....
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This note was uploaded on 11/03/2009 for the course ECON 210 taught by Professor James during the Spring '09 term at The University of British Columbia.
- Spring '09