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Biology - Study notes by section

Biology - Study notes by section - Download this WORD file...

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Download this WORD file into your computer and expand it to make notes as you read each section. This will save time by not having to reread the textbook when studying. Unit One: Setting the Stage 1 1 Light and Life 1 1.1 The Physical Nature of Light 2 1.2 Light as a Source of Energy 5 1.3 Light as a Source of Information 6 1.4 Light Can Damage Biological Molecules 11 1.5 Role of Light in Ecology and Behaviour 13 1.6 Life in the Dark 18 1.7 Organisms Making Their Own Light: Bioluminescence 18 2 Origins of Life 23 2.1 What Is Life? 24 2.2 The Chemical Origins of Life 25 2.3 The Origins of Information and Metabolism 29 2.4 Early Life 32 2.5 Eukaryotic Cells 35 3 Selection, Biodiversity, and Biosphere 47 3.1 Biodiversity 48 3.2 Selection 50 3.3 Evolution 52 3.4 The Biosphere 56 3.5 Biotic Factors 61 3.6 Cumulative Impact on Biotic and Abiotic Factors 63 Unit Two: Energy: Process and Facilitation 71 4 Energy and Enzymes 71 4.1 Energy and the Laws of Thermodynamics 72 4.2 Free Energy and Spontaneous Reactions 75 4.3 The Energy Currency of the Cell: ATP 79 4.4 The Role of Enzymes in Biological Reactions 81 4.5 Conditions and Factors That Affect Enzyme Activity 85 5 Membranes and Transport 93
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5.1 An Overview of the Structure of Membranes 94 5.2 The Lipid Fabric of a Membrane 96 5.3 Membrane Proteins 99 5.4 Passive Membrane Transport 101 5.5 Active Membrane Transport 104 5.6 Exocytosis and Endocytosis 107 6 Cellular Respiration 115 6.1 The Chemical Basis of Cellular Respiration 116 6.2 Cellular Respiration: An Overview 119 6.3 Glycolysis 120 6.4 Pyruvate Oxidation and the Citric Acid Cycle 122 6.5 Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis 123 6.6 The Efficiency and Regulation of Cellular Respiration 128 6.7 Oxygen and Cellular Respiration 131 7 Photosynthesis 139 7.1 Photosynthesis: An Overview 140 7.2 The Photosynthetic Apparatus 142 7.3 Photosynthetic Electron Transport 145 7.4 The Calvin Cycle 150 7.5 Photorespiration and CO 2 -Concentrating Mechanisms 152 8 Cell Communication 161 8.1 Cell Communication: An Overview 162 8.2 Characteristics of Cell Communication Systems with Surface Receptors 165 8.3 Surface Receptors with Built- in Protein Kinase Activity: Receptor Tyrosine Kinases 167 8.4 G Protein–Coupled Receptors 168 8.5 Pathways Triggered by Internal Receptors: Steroid Hormone Nuclear Receptors 172 8.6 Integration of Cell Communication Pathways 174 Unit Three Genes 179 9 Cell Cycles 179 9.1 The Cycle of Cell Growth and Division: An Overview 180 9.2 The Mitotic Cell Cycle 182 9.3 Formation and Action of the Mitotic Spindle 187 9.4 Cell Cycle Regulation 190 9.5 Cell Division in Prokaryotes 194 10 Genetic Recombination 199 10.1 Mechanism of Genetic Recombination 200
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10.2 Genetic Recombination in Bacteria 201 10.3 Genetic Recombination in Eukaryotes: Meiosis 209 10.4 Mobile Elements 219 11 Mendel, Genes, and Inheritance 229 11.1 The Beginnings of Genetics: Mendel’s Garden Peas 230 11.2 Later Modifications and Additions to Mendel’s Hypotheses 239 12 Genes, Chromosomes, and Human Genetics 249 12.1 Genetic Linkage and Recombination 250 12.2 Sex-Linked Genes 254 12.3 Chromosomal Alterations That Affect Inheritance 260 12.4 Human Genetics and Genetic Counseling 264 12.5 Nontraditional Patterns of Inheritance 266
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