Oct2 - Analytic Contradictory Synthetic Statements Some statements are true or false in virtue of the meaning of the words The true statements are

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Analytic, Contradictory, Synthetic Statements Some statements are true or false in virtue of the meaning of the words. The true statements are called analytic , the false ones contradictory . (86) Bachelors are unmarried males. (analytic) (87) 2 = 1 (contradictory) (88) All bodies are extended. Other statements are synthetic . To determine if they are true or false something other than the content of the statement is required. (89) This building is 41m. Knowing the meaning of words, which building, etc. is not enough. We have to measure. The distinction between analytic and synthetic statements was first made clear by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). “…whatever be their origin or logical form, there is a distinction in judgments, as to their content, according to which they are either merely explicative , adding nothing to the content of the cognition, or ampliative , increasing the given cognition: the former may be called analytic , the latter synthetic , judgments. Analytic judgments express nothing in the predicate but what has been already actually thought in the concept of the subject, though not so clearly and with the same consciousness. If I say: “All bodies are extended,” I have not amplified in the least my concept of body, but have only analyzed it, as extension was really thought to belong to that concept before the judgment was made, though it was not expressed; this judgment is therefore analytic. On the other hand, this judgment, “Some bodies have weight,” contains in its predicate something not actually thought in the universal concept of body; it amplifies my knowledge by adding something to my concept, and must therefore be called synthetic.” Kant 1783 ( Prolegomena , 266-7, trans 1977, p.12).
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(88) All bodies are extended. (analytic) subject: (material) bodies predicate: is extended It is included in the meaning of a material body that it is extended in space. (90) Some bodies have weight. (synthetic) subject: (material) bodies predicate: has weight It is not part of the meaning of what it is to be a material thing that it has weight. Note: The word “some” in (90) makes clear that the statement cannot be analytic. It
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This note was uploaded on 11/03/2009 for the course PHILOSOP 1200 taught by Professor Viger during the Fall '09 term at UWO.

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Oct2 - Analytic Contradictory Synthetic Statements Some statements are true or false in virtue of the meaning of the words The true statements are

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