ALCOHOLS, ETHERS AND EPOXIDESALCOHOLSETHERSEPOXIDES
ALCOHOLS–Nomenclature and Classification•Identify the general structure for an alcohol.•Identify the structural feature that classifies alcohols asprimary, secondary, or tertiary.•Name alcohols with both common names and IUPAC names
An alcohol is anorganic compoundwith a hydroxyl (OH) functional group on analiphatic carbonatom. Because OH is the functional group of all alcohols, we oftenrepresent alcohols by the general formula ROH, whereR is an alkyl group.Alcohols are common in nature. Most people are familiar with ethyl alcohol (ethanol),the active ingredient inalcoholic beverages, but this compound is only one of afamily of organic compounds known as alcohols. The family also includes such familiarsubstances ascholesteroland thecarbohydrates.Methanol (CH3OH) and ethanol (CH3CH2OH) are the first two members of thehomologous series of alcohols.
Phenolic compounds/flavonoids/fruits and vegetables/PP oxidase
H O M OLO G O U SS E R I E S
According to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), alcohols arenamed by changing the ending of the parent alkane name to -ol. Here are some basicIUPAC rules for naming alcohols:1.The longest continuous chain (LCC) of carbon atoms containing the OH group is taken asthe parent compound—an alkane with the same number of carbon atoms. The chain isnumbered from the end nearest the OH group.2.The number that indicates the position of the OH group is prefixed to the name of theparent hydrocarbon, and the -eending of the parent alkane is replaced by the suffix -ol.(In cyclic alcohols, the carbon atom bearing the OH group is designated C1, but the 1 isnot used in the name.) Substituents are named and numbered as in alkanes.3.If more than one OH group appears in the same molecule (polyhydroxy alcohols),suffixes such as -dioland -triolare used. In these cases, the -eending of the parent alkaneis retained.