cs3330-chap2-isa-1

Cs3330-chap2-isa-1 - CS/ECE 3330 Computer Architecture Chapter 2 ISA Instruction Set Architecture ISA The deal between hardware and software

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1 CS/ECE 3330 Computer Architecture Chapter 2 ISA ISA The “deal” between hardware and software Languages get compiled down to the ISA Instruction Set Architecture Hardware must implement the ISA An “interface”; can be extended, but nothing can be removed! Code compatibility; backward compatibility Examples of ISAs CS/ECE 3330 – Fall 2009 x86, AMD64, PA-RISC, ARM, …, MIPS! 1
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2 Instruction Set Different computers often have different instruction sets – But with many aspects in common Early computers had very simple instruction sets – Simplified implementation The old RISC vs. CISC debate CS/ECE 3330 – Fall 2009 2 The MIPS Instruction Set Used as the example throughout the book Stanford MIPS commercialized by MIPS Technologies ( www.mips.com ) Large share of embedded core market Applications in consumer electronics, network/storage equipment, cameras, printers, … Typical of many modern ISAs See MIPS Reference Data tear-out card, and Appendixes B and E CS/ECE 3330 – Fall 2009 3
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3 Arithmetic Operations Add and subtract, three operands Two sources and one destination add a, b, c # a gets b + c All arithmetic operations have this form Design Principle 1: Simplicity favors regularity Regularity makes implementation simpler Simplicity enables higher performance at lower cost CS/ECE 3330 – Fall 2009 4 Arithmetic Example C code: f = (g + h) - (i + j); MIPS MIPS : add t0, g, h # temp t0 = g + h add t1, i, j # temp t1 = i + j sub f, t0, t1 # f = t0 - t1 CS/ECE 3330 – Fall 2009 5
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4 Register Operands Arithmetic instructions use register operands MIPS has a 32 × 32-bit register file Use for frequently accessed data Numbered 0 to 31 32-bit data called a “word” Assembler names $t0, $t1, …, $t9 for temporary values $s0, $s1, …, $s7 for saved variables CS/ECE 3330 – Fall 2009 Design Principle 2: Smaller is faster c.f. main memory: millions of locations 6 Register Operand Example C code: f = (g + h) - (i + j);
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This note was uploaded on 11/04/2009 for the course CS 333 taught by Professor Stankovic during the Fall '08 term at UVA.

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Cs3330-chap2-isa-1 - CS/ECE 3330 Computer Architecture Chapter 2 ISA Instruction Set Architecture ISA The deal between hardware and software

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