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CHE_Test2 - Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution...

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Chapter 4- Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry aqueous solution - a solution in which water is the dissolving medium seawater is different from what we call “freshwater” because it has a much higher total concentration of dissolved ionic substances solution - a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances solvent - the substance present in the greatest quantity solutes - other substances in the solution; to be dissolved in the solvent a salt solution is a good conductor of electricity both solutions may be clear but they could differ in the electrical conductivity electrolyte - a substance whose aqueous solutions contain ions non-electrolyte - a substance that does not form ions in solution one way to differentiate two aqueous solutions is to employ a device that measures their electrical conductivities the ability of a solution to conduct electricity depends on the number of ions it contains an electrolyte solution contains ions that serve as charge carriers (causing the bulb to light)
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water is a very effective solvent for ionic compounds (because of its polarity) solvation - a process that helps stabilize the ions in solution and prevent cations and anions from recombining when a molecular compound dissolves in water, the solution usually consists of intact molecules dispersed throughout the solution most are non-electrolytes a few molecular substances have aqueous solutions that contain ions o acids are the most important of these solutions e.g.- HCl ionizes to dissociate in H and Cl strong electrolytes - are those solutes that exist in solution completely or nearly completely as ions essentially all soluble ionic compounds and a few molecular compounds are strong weak electrolytes - are those solutes that exist in solution mostly in the form of molecules with only a small fraction in the form of ions be careful not to confuse the extent to which an electrolyte dissolve with whether it is strong or weak chemists use half-arrows in both directions to represent the ionization of weak electrolytes and a single arrow to represent the ionization of strong electrolytes chemical equilibrium- a state of dynamic balance in which the rate of formation of the products of a reaction from the reactants equals the rate of formation of the reactants from the products; at equilibrium the concentrations of the reactants and products remain constant
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soluble ionic compounds are strong electrolytes ionic compounds - those made up of metals and nonmetals or compounds containing the ammonium ion Precipitation reactions - reactions that result in the formation of an insoluble product; occur when certain pairs of oppositely charged ions attract each other so strongly that they form an insoluble ionic solid Precipitate - an insoluble solid formed by a reaction in solution Solubility- of substance at a given temperature is the amount of the substance that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent at the given temperature Any substance with a solubility less than 1.0 mol/L will be referred to as
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