2008 Practice Exam

2008 Practice Exam - Advanced Placement Program AP® United...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Advanced Placement Program AP® United States History Practice Exam The questions contained in this AP® United States History Practice Exam are written to the content specifications of AP Exams for this subject. Taking this practice exam should provide students with an idea of their general areas of strengths and weaknesses in preparing for the actual AP Exam. Because this AP United States History Practice Exam has never been administered as an operational AP Exam, statistical data are not available for calculating potential raw scores or conversions into AP grades. This AP United States History Practice Exam is provided by the College Board for AP Exam preparation. Teachers are permitted to download the materials and make copies to use with their students in a classroom setting only. To maintain the security of this exam, teachers should collect all materials after their administration and keep them in a secure location. Teachers may not redistribute the files electronically for any reason. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. Contents Directions for Administration ............................................................................................ ii Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions ................................................................................ 1 Section II: Free-Response Questions .............................................................................. 14 Student Answer Sheet for Multiple-Choice Section ...................................................... 22 Multiple-Choice Answer Key........................................................................................... 23 Free-Response Scoring Guidelines .................................................................................. 24 The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. -i- AP® United States History Directions for Administration The AP United States History Exam is 3 hours and 5 minutes in length and consists of a multiple-choice and a free-response section. • The 55-minute multiple-choice Section I contains 80 questions and accounts for 50 percent of the final grade. • The 130-minute free-response Section II includes a mandatory 15-minute reading period. Students are required to answer 3 questions, accounting for 50 percent of the final grade. Part A includes the document-based essay question (DBQ). Students are advised to spend most of the 15minute reading period analyzing the documents and planning their answer to the DBQ. Suggested writing time for the DBQ is 45 minutes. Parts B and C each include two standard essay questions that, with the DBQ, cover the period from the first European explorations of the Americas to the present. Students are required to answer one essay question in each part in a total of 70 minutes. For each of the essay questions students choose to answer in Parts B and C, it is suggested they spend 5 minutes planning and 30 minutes writing. The actual AP Exam is administered in one session. Students will have the most realistic experience if a complete morning or afternoon is available to administer this practice exam. If a schedule does not permit one time period for the entire practice exam administration, it would be acceptable to administer Section I one day and Section II on a subsequent day. Many students wonder whether or not to guess the answers to the multiple-choice questions about which they are not certain. It is improbable that mere guessing will improve a score. However, if a student has some knowledge of the question and is able to eliminate one or more answer choices as wrong, it may be to the student’s advantage to answer such a question. • The use of electronic devices is not permitted during the exam. • It is suggested that the practice exam be completed using a pencil for Section I and a pen with black or dark blue ink for Section II to simulate an actual administration. • Teachers will need to provide paper for the students to write their free-response answers. Teachers should provide directions to the students indicating how they wish the responses to be labeled so the teacher will be able to associate the student’s response with the question the student intended to answer. • Remember that students are not allowed to remove any materials, including scratch work, from the testing site. -ii- Section I Multiple-Choice Questions -1- The inclusion of source material in this exam is not intended as an endorsement by the College Board or ETS of the content, ideas, or values expressed in the material. The material printed here reflects various aspects of the course of study on which this exam is based and is therefore appropriate to use to measure the skills and knowledge of this course. -2- UNITED STATES HISTORY SECTION I Time—55 minutes 80 Questions Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and place the letter of your choice in the corresponding box on the student answer sheet. 4. In the eighteenth century, British colonists wishing to settle west of the Appalachians were principally motivated by 1. A majority of the early English migrants to the Chesapeake Bay area were (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) families with young children indentured servants wealthy gentlemen merchants and craftsmen disfranchised Catholics (A) the comparatively small numbers of American Indians in the old Northwest (B) the low price and easy availability of land (C) freedom from the threat of Spanish authorities (D) a desire to escape overcrowded cities along the Atlantic coast (E) promises of tax breaks for those willing to establish frontier settlements 2. Which of the following best describes Deism? (A) A belief that the course of each individual’s life is predestined by God (B) A concept of toleration advanced by Quaker preachers (C) The belief that God had created the world but allowed it to operate through the laws of nature (D) A principle taught in colonial New England colleges (E) A radical theory encouraging free love and communal living 5. British colonists in North America objected to the Stamp Act primarily because it (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) threatened the free press disrupted trade with the West Indies closed the colonial courts enriched corrupt officials taxed them without their consent 6. African Americans who fled the violence of the Reconstruction South in 1879 and 1880 to start anew in Kansas were known as 3. France decided to aid the North American colonies in their war for independence primarily because France (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) was working to establish democratic rule in European countries (B) saw the war as an opportunity to end the international slave trade (C) wanted to weaken the British empire (D) was allied with Spain, which had already joined the colonists’ cause (E) had long been the primary trading partner of the North American colonies exodusters homesteaders scalawags jayhawkers the Colored Farmers’ National Alliance GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -3- 11. A distinguishing feature of American society in the early nineteenth century was the 7. President George Washington’s Farewell Address set a course for the nation by (A) (B) (C) (D) increasing readership of newspapers lack of enthusiasm for religious reform embrace of an aristocratic hierarchy creation of original forms of art and architecture (E) dislike of voluntary associations (A) endorsing the economic policies of the Federalists (B) discouraging permanent alliances with foreign nations (C) endorsing the two-party system (D) calling for strict term limits for federal officeholders (E) calling for the adoption of universal suffrage 12. In the last half of the nineteenth century, the New South advocates supported 8. The Supreme Court established which of the following by its ruling in Marbury v. Madison ? (A) elimination of convict leasing (B) expansion of southern industry (C) creation of a southern literature critical of the Old South (D) elimination of Jim Crow segregation (E) limitation on West Indian migration to the United States (A) States have the authority to nullify acts of Congress. (B) The Bank of the United States is constitutional under the implied powers clause. (C) States may not interfere with interstate commerce. (D) The Supreme Court has the authority to determine the constitutionality of congressional acts. (E) Government contracts cannot be repealed by popular majority. 13. President Theodore Roosevelt addressed all of the following issues during his presidency EXCEPT (A) unsanitary conditions in the meat-packing industry (B) monopolization and consolidation in the railroad industry (C) railroad freight rates (D) insider trading on the stock market (E) unsafe drug products 9. Support for slavery in the Southern states was based on all of the following reasons EXCEPT: (A) Most White families owned slaves. (B) Slaveholders believed that slaves were inferior and required White guardianship. (C) Slavery was condoned in the Bible. (D) White plantation owners feared abolition would destroy the South’s economy. (E) Poor White farmers feared the economic competition of four million freed persons. 14. City bosses and urban political machines in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries did which of the following? (A) They enabled the urban middle class to participate more effectively in politics. (B) They provided some welfare for poor immigrants in exchange for political support. (C) They encouraged racial integration of residential neighborhoods. (D) They discouraged railroad and highway construction to prevent people from moving out of urban areas. (E) They promoted prohibition and the abolition of prostitution. 10. Most of the Irish immigrants who came to the United States following the potato famine of the 1840s settled in (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) urban areas of the North seacoast cities of the South rural sections of the Old Northwest California Appalachia GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -4- 18. A significant demographic development in the two decades following the Second World War was a 15. The United States devised the Open Door policy in 1899 in order to (A) establish a United States colony in China (B) encourage the Chinese to adopt Western culture (C) protect United States economic interests in China (D) prevent European nations from establishing a presence in Chinese territory (E) assure the right of the Unites States to intervene in China whenever necessary _________________________________________ (A) (B) (C) (D) decline in marriage and birth rates rapid growth of suburbs movement from urban to rural communities great migration from the South and West to the Northeast (E) rapid increase in the average age of Americans 19. The 1962 book that helped launch the national environmental movement was (A) James Baldwin’s The Fire Next Time (B) Michael Harrington’s The Other America (C) Alice Walker’s In Search of Our Mothers’ Gardens (D) Jack Kerouac’s On The Road (E) Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring PLATFORM First. – That the union of the labor forces of the United States this day consummated shall be permanent and perpetual. Second. – Wealth belongs to him who creates it. . . . The interests of rural and civil labor are the same; their enemies are identical. . . . 20. During 1968 the deep divisions within the American public were demonstrated by all of the following EXCEPT (A) the assassinations of Robert F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr. (B) urban riots in major cities across the country (C) antiwar demonstrations at the Democratic national convention in Chicago (D) the refusal of most Republicans to support Richard Nixon as their presidential candidate (E) the strong showing of George Wallace’s American Independent Party in southern states and some northern urban centers 1. We demand free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold at the present legal ratio of 16 to 1. . . . 3. We demand a graduated income tax. . . . RESOLVED, That we demand a free ballot and a fair count in all elections . . . through the adoption of the Australian or secret ballot system. 16. The excerpts above appeared in the platform of which of the following political parties? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) American Party Greenback Labor Party Populist Party Socialist Party Progressive Party 21. Thomas Paine’s pamphlet Common Sense attacked which of the following? (A) France for its failure to support the colonial war effort (B) Parliament for its continued opposition to the king of England (C) Politicians who believed a small island could not effectively rule a distant continent (D) The king of England and the principle of monarchy (E) The authors of the Declaration of Independence 17. The Palmer raids of 1919 to 1920 were most closely related to the (A) fear of communism and radicalism (B) formation of the American Federation of Labor (C) enforcement of prohibition (D) rise of racial unrest in the Midwest (E) enforcement of child labor laws GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -5- 26. The Missouri Compromise was a victory for antislavery advocates because it 22. Which of the following was true of colonial New England? (A) provided for the gradual emancipation of slaves in Missouri (B) excluded slavery from all territory north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River (C) prohibited slavery from future territorial acquisitions (D) condemned the fugitive slave law (E) closed most of the Louisiana Purchase to slavery (A) It consisted of loosely organized communities spread some distance apart. (B) Its economy was dependent on large-scale farming and trading. (C) Life was centered in clustered villages with farmland surrounding the villages. (D) Most people lived in large cities. (E) Villages and small towns were tightly organized around an artisan community. 27. During the first half of the nineteenth century, the central and western areas of New York were known as the “burned-over district” because 23. The Constitutional Convention of 1787 did all of the following EXCEPT (A) create a government that would be satisfactory to both slave and free states (B) create a government that would be satisfactory to both large and small states (C) create a strong central government that would not threaten the sovereignty of the states (D) establish a balance of power between the three branches of the national government (E) determine provisions to be included in the Bill of Rights (A) of intense religious zeal created during the Second Great Awakening (B) terrible fires had followed the clear-cut logging by pioneers in that part of the state (C) the area had not recovered from the devastation of the War of 1812 (D) American Indian settlements had been completely destroyed as settlers moved in and took over the land (E) the region’s economy had never revived after the hardships that followed the Whiskey Rebellion 24. After the French and Indian War, British political leaders were determined to (A) require the North American colonies to pay a greater share of the empire’s administrative expenses (B) end slavery in the North American colonies (C) encourage colonial expansion into the Ohio Valley by moving all American Indian peoples further west (D) strengthen the French colonial holdings in Canada and the northwest to discourage Spanish expansion (E) convert all Catholic colonists to the beliefs of the Anglican Church 28. The Monroe Doctrine maintained that (A) all nations and states in the Americas were territories of the United States (B) European powers should not pursue any future colonization in the Americas (C) Cuba, Texas, and Puerto Rico were protectorates of the United States (D) Haiti would be established as a colony to be settled by formerly enslaved people from the United States (E) the United States Congress could overrule the president’s foreign policy initiatives in Latin America 25. The concept of republican motherhood includes the idea that women should (A) have the right to vote (B) hold public office (C) be educated to raise their children to be good citizens (D) be encouraged to seek employment (E) have as many children as possible GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -6- “Money is power, and you ought to be reasonably ambitious to have it. You ought because you can do more good with it than you could without it. Money printed your Bible, money builds your churches. . . . The man who gets the largest salary can do the most good with the power that is furnished to him. Of course he can if his spirit be right to use it for what it is given to him. I say, then, you ought to have money.” 29. The Southern economy before the Civil War increasingly (A) diversified, with more industry and more mechanized agriculture (B) produced more cotton and other crops but did not develop much industry (C) depended on immigrant labor (D) produced tobacco and sugar rather than cotton (E) depended on the North for raw materials 33. The quotation above is an example of (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 30. The Republican Party of the 1850s took which of the following positions on slavery? (A) Residents of territories could decide on the basis of popular sovereignty whether to have slavery. (B) Slavery could remain where it existed but should not be extended into territories or new states. (C) The federal government should abolish slavery. (D) The federal government should purchase slaves from their masters and relocate them to the west coast of Africa. (E) Slavery was a state issue, and the federal government should play no role in its regulation. transcendentalism existentialism the Gospel of Wealth the Social Gospel Reform Darwinism 34. Jacob Riis’s principal involvement in the reform movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was his effort to (A) bar obscene materials from the United States mail system (B) organize the transfer of urban orphans to homes in rural areas (C) publicize poor housing and sanitation in urban tenements (D) establish special homes for juvenile delinquents (E) pass federal laws to end prostitution 31. Thomas Jefferson believed all of the following EXCEPT: 35. During Reconstruction, a major economic development in the South was the (A) A strong national army is essential to keep order in the United States. (B) The farmer is the backbone of American society. (C) The government is best that governs least. (D) The president should practice republican simplicity. (E) Freedom of speech is essential in a republic. (A) creation of large commercial and banking centers (B) spread of sharecropping (C) rise of large-scale commercial farming (D) decline of the textile industry (E) emergence of the cotton economy 36. A key goal of the Progressive movement was to 32. According to historian Frederick Jackson Turner, a key factor in the development of American individualism and democracy was (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) replace capitalism with socialism (B) transform the United States into an agrarian republic (C) use government power to regulate industrial production and labor conditions (D) eliminate class differences in the United States (E) bring about racial integration in public accommodations Puritan theology transcendentalism the American Revolution the Civil War the frontier GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -7- 40. Which of the following did the Black Panthers and the Nation of Islam have in common in the late 1960s? 37. During the Second World War, Japanese Americans were relocated because of (A) the need for skilled workers in specialized industries in Utah and Montana (B) previous laws that had incarcerated German Americans (C) fear of possible subversive activity against the war effort (D) the fact that most Japanese Americans were not citizens (E) the continued efforts by the United States military to stop immigration to California (A) They advocated ending segregation in the North rather than the South. (B) They sought affiliation with the American Communist Party. (C) They emphasized developing a greater sense of Black nationalism and solidarity. (D) They advocated nonviolent means to achieve their goals. (E) They split off from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) after the death of Martin Luther King, Jr. 38. Which of the following resulted from the Cuban missile crisis? 41. Anne Hutchinson was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1637 because she (A) The Soviets were allowed to keep existing missiles in Cuba but could not increase the number of missiles. (B) The United States agreed to withdraw from Berlin in exchange for Soviet withdrawal from Cuba. (C) The Soviets gained none of their objectives, while the United States emerged victorious. (D) The United States succeeded in eliminating all communist influence from the Western Hemisphere. (E) The Soviets withdrew their missiles from Cuba in exchange for a promise from the United States not to attack Fidel Castro. (A) violated Puritan laws regarding marriage (B) advocated the inclusion of American Indians in Puritan congregations (C) was a Quaker who sought converts (D) advocated giving women full inheritance (E) challenged the religious beliefs of the colony’s leaders 42. The government of the Articles of Confederation was successful in resolving the problem of how to (A) open British Caribbean ports to American trade (B) enable American citizens to trade through the port of New Orleans (C) overcome state-imposed tariff barriers to interstate commerce (D) provide for statehood for western territories (E) secure sufficient funds for payment of the national debt 39. The Taft-Hartley Act did which of the following? (A) Established wage and price controls during the Nixon administration (B) Protected American manufacturers from European competition during the Depression (C) Recognized the right of labor unions to establish closed shops (D) Limited the powers of labor unions (E) Created the interstate highway system 43. Which of the following happened as a result of Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676 ? (A) Governor William Berkeley abolished Virginia’s House of Burgesses. (B) Virginia passed new laws protecting workers’ rights. (C) Tensions between backcountry farmers and the tidewater gentry were exposed. (D) Indentured servants received additional free land after fulfilling their terms of service. (E) The king allowed Virginia colonists to select their own governor. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -8- 44. Alexander Hamilton’s domestic and foreign policies were directed primarily toward strengthening the federal government by 48. Which of the following was true of the 1873 Slaughterhouse Cases and the 1883 Civil Rights cases? (A) favoring free trade (B) substituting a parliamentary for federal system of government (C) averting United States entanglement in Europe’s wars (D) favoring the interests of the propertied and monied classes (E) establishing gold as the sole backing of United States currency (A) They weakened the protections given to African Americans under the Fourteenth Amendment. (B) They weakened the protections given to women under the Fourteenth Amendment. (C) They were reversed in Plessy v. Ferguson. (D) They were concerned with the constitutionality of the Emancipation Proclamation. (E) They were deplored by President Grant. 45. All of the following contributed to Northern fear of a slave power conspiracy in the 1840s and 1850s EXCEPT the 49. Settlement house workers of the late nineteenth century would most likely have engaged in all of the following EXCEPT (A) enforcement of a new fugitive slave law (B) decision of the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott case (C) imposition of a gag rule in the House of Representatives (D) proposal of the Ostend Manifesto (E) passage of the Wilmot Proviso (A) establishing day nurseries for working mothers (B) offering literacy and language classes for immigrants (C) publishing reports on deplorable housing conditions (D) teaching classes on cooking and dressmaking (E) organizing women workers into labor unions 46. A key purpose of Henry Clay’s American System was to 50. “Another marked characteristic of the AngloSaxon is what may be called an instinct or genius for colonizing. His unequaled energy, his indomitable perseverance, and his personal independence, made him a pioneer. He excels all others in pushing his way into new countries.” (A) expand slavery into new territories to preserve its economic viability (B) improve diplomatic relations with European nations by allowing free immigration (C) develop a national economy by improving transportation (D) create more interest in politics by eliminating voting restrictions (E) remove American Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River to prevent further conflicts Americans advocating the ideas expressed in the passage above would be most accurately described as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 47. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, which of the following was the principal public opponent of lynching in the South? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) transcendentalists Populists scientific managers Social Darwinists Mugwumps Booker T. Washington Theodore Roosevelt Robert M. La Follette Ida B. Wells Susan B. Anthony GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -9- 55. During the Civil War, the Republican Party passed legislation promoting economic development concerning all of the following EXCEPT the 51. Which of the following was true of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 ? (A) It created American Indian reservations for the first time. (B) It was intended to recognize the contributions of American Indian peoples. (C) It eliminated most tribal land ownership in favor of ownership by individuals. (D) It led directly to the Battle of Wounded Knee. (E) It indicated that the federal government had abandoned the goal of American Indian assimilation. (A) granting of government subsidies to encourage the export of manufactured goods (B) establishment of a high tariff to protect American industry from foreign competition (C) organization of a national banking system to provide a uniform national currency (D) provision of government loans and land grants to private companies to construct a transcontinental railroad (E) passage of the Homestead Act 52. After the Civil War, women reformers and former abolitionists were divided over 56. Which of the following was NOT a figure in the Harlem Renaissance? (A) creation of a sharecropping system in the South (B) legislation that ensured the voting rights of African American males (C) use of military forces to keep order in the South (D) reliance on female workers in Northern factories (E) redemption of greenback dollars for gold currency (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) James Weldon Johnson Langston Hughes Zora Neale Hurston Josephine Baker A. Philip Randolph 57. The presidency of Jimmy Carter (1977–1981) was plagued by which of the following foreign policy issues? (A) The taking of American hostages in Iran (B) The Cuban missile crisis (C) The bombing of the United States embassy in Lebanon (D) The invasion of Grenada (E) The crisis in Nicaragua 53. An important result of the 1936 presidential campaign was the (A) emergence of a viable third party (B) landslide win by Republicans in the Congress (C) shift of African American voters from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party (D) move of intellectuals to Alf Landon and the Republican ticket (E) decline in support for the New Deal 58. An underlying cause of the Great Depression, which began in 1929, was (A) excessive government control of business and industry (B) overproduction in the manufacturing and farm sectors (C) the budget deficit incurred after the First World War (D) withdrawal of foreign investments from the United States (E) the implementation of free-trade policies after the First World War 54. Which of the following was an achievement of the John F. Kennedy administration? (A) Passage of civil rights legislation (B) Passage of bills to create health insurance for the aged and to increase aid to education (C) Extension of diplomatic recognition to the People’s Republic of China (D) Passage of the Alliance for Progress to provide economic aid for Latin America (E) Passage of the Economic Opportunity Bill GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -10- 63. Shays’ Rebellion reflected which of the following tensions in United States society during the 1780s? 59. Which of the following led a campaign to block ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Gloria Steinem Phyllis Schlafly Betty Friedan Marabel Morgan Shirley Chisholm (A) Conflict between Loyalist supporters of Great Britain and United States citizens (B) Concerns about increasing numbers of slaves in Massachusetts (C) Economic frustration of New England farmers who had trouble paying debts in hard currency (D) State governments’ restrictions on westward expansion into the Ohio River Valley (E) Rivalries between merchants and shipbuilders in the Atlantic trade 60. All of the following were crises during Dwight D. Eisenhower’s presidency EXCEPT (A) the Soviet Union launching Sputnik (B) Egypt seizing the Suez Canal (C) the Soviet Union shooting down an American U-2 spy plane (D) Fidel Castro gaining control of Cuba (E) the Soviet Union blockading river, road, and rail traffic into West Berlin 64. What was the primary intention of the Adams administration in enforcing the Sedition Act? (A) To stop illegal aliens from voting (B) To intimidate critics of Adams’ foreign policy toward France and England (C) To prosecute Democratic-Republicans who violated American neutrality (D) To prepare for war against Great Britain (E) To keep France from selling Louisiana to Spain 61. Mercantilism as applied by Britain to its North American colonies meant that the British government (A) subsidized colonial merchants (B) encouraged the colonists to trade with other foreign countries (C) encouraged the colonies to become economically self-sufficient (D) regulated colonial shipping and tobacco production (E) barred trade with American Indians 65. The most controversial and divisive component of the Compromise of 1850 was the (A) measure’s endorsement of popular sovereignty (B) admittance of Missouri as a slave state and the establishment of the 36°30' line (C) passage of a tougher national fugitive slave act (D) admittance of Texas as a slave state (E) legislation permitted the surveying of a southern transcontinental railway line 62. The Great Awakening of the 1740s led to (A) the growth of religious conformity throughout all the colonies (B) an increase in attacks on American Indian peoples (C) the establishment of Harvard College in Massachusetts (D) splits among existing religious denominations and the rise of new churches (E) the growth of hysteria in Massachusetts over witchcraft 66. A major consequence of the 1973 Yom Kippur War in the Middle East was that it led immediately to (A) a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel signed at Camp David (B) the nationalization of the Suez Canal by Egypt (C) the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat (D) an energy crisis sparked by OPEC’s embargo of oil to the Western world (E) international recognition of an independent country of Israel GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -11- 71. A key diplomatic achievement of Richard M. Nixon’s presidency was 67. Which of the following occurred during Radical Reconstruction? (A) a nuclear test ban treaty with the Soviet Union (B) the signing of the Camp David Accords (C) a joint Apollo-Soyuz space mission with the Soviet Union (D) a visit to Angola to help the African nation resist communist guerrillas (E) a visit to China in February 1972 (A) The passage of the Black Codes (B) A permanent shift of Southern voters to the Republican Party (C) The creation of a new industrial base in a majority of Southern states (D) The formation of the Ku Klux Klan (E) Widespread redistribution of confiscated land to former slaves 72. The containment policy articulated by George F. Kennan in 1947 proposed 68. “Every contract, combination in form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce in any territory of the United States . . . is hereby declared illegal.” (A) a United States commitment to free Eastern Europe from communism (B) a change in United States investment policies to limit the possibility of involvement in world conflict (C) an all-out campaign to destabilize the Soviet Union (D) a plan to give Western Europe greater political power and economic independence from the United States (E) efforts by the United States to block the expansion of the Soviet Union’s influence The passage above was most effectively used for which purpose in the late nineteenth century? (A) Supporting the goals of Social Darwinists (B) Restricting the power of monopolies and trusts (C) Limiting the power of labor unions (D) Regulating railroads and grain storage silos (E) Upholding the powers of the Interstate Commerce Act 69. The slaves who participated in the Stono rebellion in South Carolina in 1739 hoped to 73. The rock ‘n’ roll of Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, and the Rolling Stones derived primarily from (A) take over the colony and end slavery in it (B) return to Africa by commandeering boats (C) flee to Florida where the Spanish offered freedom (D) run away to join Maroon groups living in the backcountry (E) escape to the North where they would be free (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) European folk music nineteenth-century American ballads cowboy songs African American rhythm and blues Scotch-Irish ballads 74. One of the goals of Reaganomics was to 70. African American migration to the urban North during the First World War was due primarily to (A) encourage private investment through tax cuts for businesses and the wealthy (B) redistribute income to the bottom fifth of wage earners (C) reduce the United States nuclear arsenal (D) restrict immigration from Mexico (E) outsource United States manufacturing to Asian countries (A) racially integrated residential neighborhoods in Northern cities (B) increased educational opportunities resulting from affirmative-action programs (C) recruitment efforts by labor unions (D) expanded job opportunities in Northern factories (E) encouragement by White Protestant churches in the North 75. Betty Friedan is best known for her (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) efforts to organize migrant workers surprise election to the Senate criticism of traditional gender roles support for early childhood education opposition to the war in Vietnam GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -12- 79. Which of the following is true of American women during the Second World War? 76. The purpose of the immigration restriction acts passed in the 1920s was to (A) They initiated a visible and highly vocal feminist movement. (B) They married younger and had more children than women did before or after the war. (C) Those who took industrial jobs learned new skills and earned better pay than in jobs previously open to them. (D) They organized labor unions and led strikes demanding better working conditions. (E) Aside from participating in rationing programs, women contributed little to the war effort. (A) exclude Chinese immigration for a period of ten years (B) favor northern and western European immigration (C) favor southern and eastern European immigration (D) deny citizenship to immigrants from Asia and Africa (E) limit immigration from Canada and Mexico 77. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is significant because it (A) required Taiwan to relinquish its position on the United Nations Security Council to China (B) authorized the president to take any measures necessary to repel attacks against United States forces and allies in Southeast Asia (C) led to an alliance between the United States, Japan, and Taiwan to limit the power of China in Asia (D) conferred the most-favored-nation status to China in its trade with the United States (E) declared that the United States would continue to provide air and naval support but withdraw all ground troops in the Vietnam War 80. Which of the following statements about George Wallace’s third-party presidential campaign in 1968 is correct? (A) He appealed to many middle-class voters upset by the civil disobedience associated with the Civil Rights and antiwar demonstrations. (B) He appealed to the isolationists who opposed United States involvement in Vietnam. (C) He supported the integrationist goals of Martin Luther King, Jr., but opposed the more extreme tactics of the Black Muslims and Black Panthers. (D) He was strongly supported by intellectuals and college students who thought the Democratic and Republican parties were both too conservative. (E) He advocated an expansion of poverty programs in an effort to win the support of the inner-city poor. 78. During the 1960s, sit-in demonstrations were first effectively used by (A) college students working with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) (B) Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) (C) Huey Newton and the Black Panthers (D) Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam (E) African American veterans returning from the Second World War END OF SECTION I IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION. DO NOT GO ON TO SECTION II UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. -13- Section II Free-Response Questions -14- UNITED STATES HISTORY SECTION II Part A (Suggested writing time—45 minutes) Percent of Section II score—45 Directions: The following question requires you to construct a coherent essay that integrates your interpretation of Documents A-I and your knowledge of the period referred to in the question. High scores will be earned only by essays that both cite key pieces of evidence from the documents and draw on outside knowledge of the period. 1. The 1920s have been characterized as a decade of economic, social, and cultural change. Analyze the extent to which the First World War and consumerism affected United States society during this period. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -15- Document A Source: Chicago Tribune, 1919. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -16- Document B Source: Bishop John L. Hurst, “Fight,” in The Crisis, the journal of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1919. As a race, we gave the country our best sons to make the supreme sacrifice in order to make the world free from German oppression. These same boys should be willing to make this country free from American oppression against their race. I know they are willing and ready. Some may say this is madness. If it is, let me reassure them that the entire race must be mad, for this is the language they speak today and the only thing they will listen to. Document C Document D Source: Sinclair Lewis, Babbitt, 1922. It was the best of nationally advertised and quantitatively produced alarm-clocks, with all modern attachments, including cathedral chime, intermittent alarm, and phosphorescent dial. Babbitt was proud of being awakened by such a rich device. Socially it was almost as creditable as buying expensive cord tires. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -17- Document E Source: Thorstein Veblen, “Dementia Praecox,” The Freeman, 1922. It is evident now . . . that no part of Europe is better off for America’s having taken part in the great war. So also it is evident that the Americans are all the worse off for it. . . . The Republic has come through this era of spiritual dilapidation with an unbalanced budget and an increased armament by use of which to “safeguard American Interests”—that is to say, negotiate . . . a system of passports, deportations, and restricted immigration. . . . The State constabularies have been augmented; the right of popular assembly freely interfered with . . . . the Ku Klux Klan has been reanimated and reorganized for extra-legal intimidation of citizens. . . . Meantime the profiteers do business as usual and the Federal authorities are busied with a schedule of increased protective duties designed to enhance the profits of their business. Those traits in this current situation wherein it is different from the relatively sober state of things before the war, have been injected by America’s participation in the war. Document F Source: Fannie Hurst, New York Times, 1923. The place of the woman of intelligence is not inevitably in the kitchen worrying about pot and pan trifles, not at the front door every evening waiting tremulously for the step of her John and fearful lest the roast be . . . overdone. Her place is where she can give the most service and get the most out of life . . . . Document G Source: John Dewey, The Public and Its Problems, 1927. The present era of “prosperity” may not be enduring. But the movie, radio, cheap reading and motor car with all they stand for have come to stay. That they did not originate in deliberate desire to divert attention from political interests does not lessen their effectiveness in that direction. The political elements in the constitution of the human being, those having to do with citizenship, are crowded to one side. . . . Let there be introduced the topic of the mechanism and accomplishment of various makes of motor cars or the respective merits of actresses, and the dialogue goes on at a lively pace. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -18- Document H Source: Lieutenant Henry, in Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms, 1929. I was always embarrassed by the words “sacred,” “glorious,” and “sacrifice.” . . . We had heard them, sometimes standing in the rain almost out of earshot, so that only the shouted words came through, and had read them, on proclamations that were slapped up by billposters over other proclamations, now for a long time, and I had seen nothing sacred, and the things that were glorious had no glory and the sacrifices were like the stockyard at Chicago if nothing was done to the meat except bury it. There were many words that you could not stand to hear and finally only the names of places had dignity . . . . Abstract words such as “glory,” “honor,” “courage,” or “hallow” were obscene beside the concrete names of villages, the number of roads, the names of rivers. Document I Source: Malcolm Cowley, Exile’s Return, autobiography published in 1934. We were physically uprooted . . . plucked from our own soil . . . and dumped, scattered among strange people. . . . We were fed, lodged, clothed by strangers, commanded by strangers. . . . Then, as suddenly as it began for us, the war ended. When we first heard of the Armistice we felt a sense of relief too deep to express. . . . We had come through, we were still alive, and nobody would be killed tomorrow. The composite fatherland for which we had fought and in which some of us believed—France, Italy, the Allies, our English homeland, democracy, the self-determination of small nations—had triumphed. We danced in the streets. . . . But slowly, as the days went by, the intoxication passed, and the tears of joy: it appeared that our composite fatherland was dissolving into quarreling statesmen and oil and steel magnates. END OF DOCUMENTS FOR QUESTION 1 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -19- UNITED STATES HISTORY SECTION II Part B and Part C (Suggested total planning and writing time—70 minutes) Percent of Section II score—55 Part B Directions: Choose ONE question from this part. You are advised to spend 5 minutes planning and 30 minutes writing your answer. Cite relevant historical evidence in support of your generalizations and present your arguments clearly and logically. 2. Americans have sometimes resorted to using extralegal means to promote change. Assess the extent to which such measures were effective by analyzing EACH of the following. Boston Tea Party John Brown’s raid at Harpers Ferry 3. To what extent did the War of 1812 constitute a “second American revolution”? In your answer be sure to address EACH of the following. Foreign relations Economic development Limit your answer to the period through the 1820s. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -20- Part C Directions: Choose ONE question from this part. You are advised to spend 5 minutes planning and 30 minutes writing your answer. Cite relevant historical evidence in support of your generalizations and present your arguments clearly and logically. 4. The period 1870 to 1900 experienced more conflict than consensus over labor relations. Assess the validity of this statement with respect to TWO of the following. Government Industrialists Organized labor 5. Evaluate the impact of the Second World War on the United States in the 1950s and 1960s in terms of TWO of the following. Education International relations Science and technology WHEN YOU FINISH WRITING, CHECK YOUR WORK ON SECTION II IF TIME PERMITS. STOP END OF EXAM -21- Name: _______________________________________ AP® United States History Student Answer Sheet for Multiple-Choice Section No. 1 Answer No. 31 Answer No. 61 2 32 62 3 33 63 4 34 64 5 35 65 6 36 66 7 37 67 8 38 68 9 39 69 10 40 70 11 41 71 12 42 72 13 43 73 14 44 74 15 45 75 16 46 76 17 47 77 18 48 78 19 49 79 20 50 80 21 51 22 52 23 53 24 54 25 55 26 56 27 57 28 58 29 59 30 60 -22- Answer AP® United States History Multiple-Choice Answer Key No. 1 Correct Answer B No. 31 Correct Answer A No. 61 Correct Answer D 2 C 32 E 62 D 3 C 33 C 63 C 4 B 34 C 64 B 5 E 35 B 65 C 6 A 36 C 66 D 7 B 37 C 67 D 8 D 38 E 68 C 9 A 39 D 69 C 10 A 40 C 70 D 11 A 41 E 71 E 12 B 42 D 72 E 13 D 43 C 73 D 14 B 44 D 74 A 15 C 45 E 75 C 16 C 46 C 76 B 17 A 47 D 77 B 18 B 48 A 78 A 19 E 49 E 79 C 20 D 50 D 80 A 21 D 51 C 22 C 52 B 23 E 53 C 24 A 54 D 25 C 55 A 26 E 56 E 27 A 57 A 28 B 58 B 29 B 59 B 30 B 60 E -23- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1—Document Based Question The 1920s have been characterized as a decade of economic, social, and cultural change. Analyze the extent to which the First World War and consumerism affected United States society during this period. The 8–9 Essay • Contains a well-developed thesis that analyzes the extent to which the First World War and consumerism affected United States society in the 1920s in terms of economic, social, and cultural change. Discussions of economic, social, and cultural change may overlap. • Supports the thesis with a strong analysis of the ways in which consumerism and the First World War affected United States society in the 1920s, in terms of economic, social, and cultural change during this period. • Effectively uses a substantial number of documents. • Supports the thesis with substantial and relevant outside information. • May contain minor errors. • Is clearly organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that addresses the ways in which consumerism and the First World War affected United States society in the 1920s and addresses social, economic, and cultural change. Discussions of economic, social, and cultural change may overlap. • Supports the thesis with limited analysis of the ways in which consumerism and the First World War affected United States society in the 1920s, in terms of social, economic, and cultural change during this period. Some aspects may be imbalanced or omitted. • Effectively uses some documents. • Supports the thesis with some relevant outside information. • May have errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Shows acceptable organization and writing; language errors do not interfere with the comprehension of the essay. The 2–4 Essay • Contains a limited or undeveloped thesis. • Lacks analysis; deals with the question in a general, simplistic, incomplete, or superficial manner. • Merely paraphrases, quotes, or briefly cites documents. • Contains little outside information, or information that is inaccurate or irrelevant. • May contain major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. • Exhibits inadequate or incorrect understanding of the question. • Has little or no understanding of the documents or ignores them completely. • Contains no outside information. • May contain substantial factual errors. • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. -24- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 Document Information and Inferences Document A: Cartoon, Close the Gate, 1919 Document Information • An “undesirable” with a bomb is approaching the United States. • The undesirable person is confronted by a wall with a gate labeled “IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS.” Document Inferences • The “bomb head” represents immigrants, and the gate labeled “IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS” represents proposed legislation. • The caption refers to proposals to restrict immigration. • Recent immigrants from southern and eastern Europe were considered a threat to American values. • Immigrants were associated with radicalism. • Immigration restrictions were proposed. • The cartoonist is critical of the nativist sentiments expressed in the cartoon. • The First World War led to the collapse of the Russian government and the Bolshevik Revolution. • The United States has a long history of opposition to immigration, from the Alien and Sedition Acts to the Immigration Restriction League. • Immigrants who arrived in the United States immediately after the First World War came primarily from southern and eastern Europe and were of the Catholic and Jewish faiths. • From 1919–1920 a series of bombings or planned bombings were directed at Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, John D. Rockefeller, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Kenesaw Mountain Landis, and the J. P. Morgan and Company bank building on Wall Street. • From 1919–1921, A. Mitchell Palmer led a series of raids on radical organizations throughout the United States. • A number of suspected radicals, including Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, were deported to the Soviet Union. -25- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document B: Bishop John L. Hurst, “Fight,” The Crisis, 1919 Document Information • African American soldiers made sacrifices to free the world from German oppression. • African American soldiers should fight to end American racism and oppression. Document Inferences • African American soldiers made sacrifices and fought in the First World War to end German oppression. • African American soldiers, on their return, should fight against racism in the United States. • The passage is excerpted from The Crisis, the journal of the NAACP, and the author is African American. • The experiences of African Americans in the First World War heightened their expectations that racial problems would be addressed at home (in the United States) as well. • The post–First World War period was marred by lynching and race riots. The writer is alluding to the inconsistency of United States participation in the First World War to safeguard democratic ideals contrasted with the racism that was prevalent at home. -26- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document C: Consumer Spending for Recreation and Consumer Debt, 1920–1929 Document Information • Consumer debt increased from $3 billion in 1920 to approximately $7 billion in 1929, a rate of increase that outstripped consumer spending for recreation. • Consumer spending for recreation increased from just over $1 billion in 1920 to over $3 billion in 1929. Document Inferences • Consumer debt increased as people purchased items on credit. • Advertising played a major role in driving the economy. Workers were encouraged to purchase more goods. The automobile and other technological devices changed American lives—new roads, suburbs, diners, motels, and the increasing independence of young people. • This document has ties to Documents D and G. -27- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document D: Sinclair Lewis, Babbitt, 1922 Document Information • Nationally advertised products such as alarm clocks were produced in large quantities. • Babbitt was proud to use such a clock. Document Inferences • Technological change marked the automobile industry. • The Creel Committee sold the war and Wilsonian idealism just as any company sold its product. Massproduced products fed the need for fancy and expensive purchases. • The fictional character (Babbitt) was proud to be part of a consumer society. • This document has ties to Documents C and G. -28- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document E: Thorstein Veblen, “Dementia Praecox,” The Freeman, 1922 Document Information • Both the United States and Europe are worse off for having taken part in the Great War. • As a result of the war, the United States has an unbalanced budget. • The Ku Klux Klan has reorganized and intimidates citizens. • Profiteers supported by the government get rich while appearing to do business as usual. • Europe is no better off after the war because of American participation. Document Inferences • The United States was in a spiritual decline or state of malaise. • The First World War led to an erosion of civil and political rights due to the government’s increased wartime powers. • The government increasingly protected business interests at the expense of the public interest. • This document has ties to Document A. -29- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document F: Fannie Hurst, New York Times, 1923 Document Information • A smart woman should work where her skills and talents enable her to be personally fulfilled and to help others. • A woman’s place is not necessarily in the home and kitchen. Documentary Inferences • The Nineteenth Amendment granting women suffrage was passed because of successful agitation by women. • Women should be able to pursue avenues in keeping with their talents to find fulfillment in their lives; they should not be confined to the home. • Affordable new technological devices reduced women’s household work. -30- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document G: John Dewey, The Public and Its Problems, 1927 Document Information • The public pays no attention to the political issues of the day. • The public pays close attention to movies and movie stars, radio, and various mechanical items. • The present era of prosperity may not last. Documentary Inferences • The 1920s was a time of conservative political leadership marked by the ascendancy of the Republican Party. • Slogans of the time included Warren G. Harding’s “Return to normalcy,” Calvin Coolidge’s “The business of America is business,” and Hubert Hoover’s “Rugged individualism.” • John Dewey was an educator and supporter of pragmatism. • There was a decline in public interest in politics and the activities of citizens caused by an increasing interest in material goods and prosperity. -31- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document H: Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms, 1929 Document Information • The words “sacred,” “glorious,” and “sacrifice” are meaningless. Document Inferences • Hemingway’s works such as A Farewell to Arms, a fictional account of the war, captured the essence of the Lost Generation. • The writer is disillusioned and critical of the war, reflecting public sentiment. -32- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document I: Malcolm Cowley, Exile’s Return, 1934 Document Information • Cowley notes that soldiers were uprooted from their soil and scattered among “strange people.” • Cowley writes that there was a sense of relief when the war ended • Cowley senses that his “fatherland” is slowly dissolving. Documentary Inferences • The date of publication of Cowley’s autobiography, 1934, puts it squarely in the middle of the Great Depression, which might well have influenced his writings. • Cowley’s reference to “the self-determination of small nations” is a clear response to Wilson’s Fourteen Points. • Cowley’s comment on “quarreling statesmen and oil and steel magnates” may be a reference to the rise of business culture and government corruption among political and big business interests. -33- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Potential Outside Information Triggered by Documents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1921 Emergency Quota Act (limited the number of immigrants from any country to 3 percent of persons from that country living in the United States in 1910) 1924 Immigration Act: included the National Origins Act (limited the number of immigrants from any country to 2 percent of the number of people from that country living in the United States in 1890) and the Asian-Exclusion Act (Johnson-Reed Act) Madison Grant A. Lawrence Lowell Al Smith Sacco and Vanzetti Wartime Prohibition Act Eighteenth Amendment Volstead Act Twenty-first Amendment Ku Klux Klan parade in Washington, D.C. Strikes of 1919 Great Migration Segregated Army Birth of a Nation Harlem Renaissance Langston Hughes Claude McKay Louis Armstrong James Weldon Johnson Paul Robeson The “New Negro” Alain Locke Eubie Blake, author of the first Black musical on Broadway Shuffle Along Marcus Garvey A. Philip Randolph (Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters) Black soldiers in Houston, Texas, court-martialed for fighting Whites (August 1917) Race riots in East St. Louis, Illinois (July 1917), Washington, D.C. (July 1919), and Chicago, Illinois (July–August 1919) Popularity of brand names Silent movies Amos ‘n’ Andy Homestead Grays Babe Ruth Lou Gehrig Bill Tilden Bobby Jones Eddie Cantor Rudolph Valentino Gossip columnists Charleston -34- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Potential Outside Information Triggered by Documents (continued) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Speakeasy Amusement parks Cotton Club The Savoy Crash of 1929 Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows Henry Ford/Ford Motor Company/Model T General Motors The United States made 85 percent of the world’s passenger cars in the 1920s. J. Walter Thompson The Saturday Evening Post Reader’s Digest Time Ham radio, shortwave radio KDKA Vogue Progressive education David Stephenson All Quiet on the Western Front Hiram Evans Fordney-McCumber Tariff Food Administrator Herbert Hoover The Theory of the Leisure Class Flapper Margaret Sanger Frances Perkins Belle Moskowitz Aimee Semple McPherson Fannie Hurst Alice Paul H.L. Mencken, “the debunkers” John Dos Passos Gertrude Stein Upton Sinclair The Lost Generation Many Americans supported the League of Nations (which the United States had not joined), the Washington Arms Conference, the Dawes and Young Plans, and the Kellogg-Briand Pact. Farm income declined sharply after the war and remained depressed throughout the 1920s. Scopes Trial William Jennings Bryan Clarence Darrow A & P: the Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company Increased concentrations of wealth by 1929 Teapot Dome Scandal -35- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 2 Americans have sometimes resorted to using extralegal means to promote change. Assess the extent to which such measures were effective by analyzing EACH of the following. Boston Tea Party John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that examines the extent to which the TWO extralegal events were effective. • Develops the thesis with considerable specific and relevant historical information. • Provides strong analysis of TWO events and the extent to which each event resulted in desired change. • May contain minor errors that do not detract from the overall quality of the essay. • Is well organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that partially examines the extent to which the TWO extralegal events were effective. • Supports the thesis with some relevant historical information. • Provides some analysis of the TWO events and the extent to which each event resulted in desired change; treatment of the two events may be uneven. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay • • • • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question, or contains a confused or unfocused thesis. Provides few relevant facts, or lists facts with little or no application to the thesis. Provides simplistic analysis that may be generally descriptive or addresses only one field. May contain major errors. The 0–1 Essay • • • • May paraphrase the question. Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response. Has little or no understanding of the question. May contain substantial factual errors. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. -36- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Background Information for Teachers on Question 2 Students should understand that “extralegal means” refers to actions that are outside the boundaries of legal control or authority: for example, contrary to British colonial law in the case of the Boston Tea Party, and contrary to the laws of the United States in the case of John’s Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry. Assessing the need to turn to extralegal means implies also an understanding of why legal avenues of action have not produced results. Boston Tea Party Britain’s renewed effort to enforce the Navigation Acts met with colonial resistance, including establishment of the Committees of Correspondence. The British attempt to establish an East India Company tea monopoly led to a colonial boycott. Massachusetts’s Royal Governor Thomas Hutchinson refused to negotiate, and tensions grew in Boston when colonists refused to unload a tea shipment in the fall of 1773. John Brown’s Raid John Brown, a committed though mentally unstable abolitionist, hoped to spur a spontaneous rebellion of southern slaves by raiding a federal arsenal on October 16, 1859, distributing arms to local slaves, and then leading them in a rebellion that would sweep the South and result in the establishment of a free black state and sanctuary in the Blue Ridge Mountains of western Virginia. After gathering funds from a small number of northern abolitionists, he led a failed raid on the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, killing and injuring a number of innocent people before he and his followers were overcome by a combined force of U.S. Marines under Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee and the Virginia militia. Brown, on trial for murder, refused to mount an insanity plea and instead accepted a death sentence, becoming a martyr for the cause of abolition rather than going down in history as simply a demented individual. Brown was hanged on Dec 2, 1859. -37- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 2 Information The Boston Tea Party • Colonists were increasingly influenced by ideals of republicanism and the need for civic involvement. • Increasing property ownership and greater political participation encouraged colonists to think of themselves as entitled to a greater say in local rule. • The end of the French and Indian War in 1763 led to renewed British pressure on the colonies to shoulder a portion of the British war debt. • The British passed the Proclamation Act of 1763. • The end of British salutary neglect of the colonies meant renewed emphasis on a mercantilist system in which the colonies were expected to provide raw materials and markets, and Britain enforced the Navigation Acts. • The British tried colonial violators in admiralty courts. • Colonial reactions to the Grenville Acts of 1763–1765 (Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Quartering Act) included the charge of “no taxation without representation” and a refusal to accept “virtual” representation as equal to actual representation. o The formation of the Stamp Act Congress o John Dickinson and his “Letter from a Farmer in Pennsylvania” o Samuel Adams and the Massachusetts Circular Letter o Boston Massacre, March 5, 1770 • Townshend Acts (1767–1770) led to controversy over internal versus external taxes; import duties were unpopular, and the colonists responded with renewal of nonimportation agreements and increased smuggling. • Passage of the Declaratory Act. • The Boston Massacre (March 5, 1770) helped end Townshend’s government. • Lord North assumed power as Prime Minister; he rescinded many taxes but kept the tax on tea that was resented by the colonists. • Britain’s renewed effort to enforce the Navigation Acts met with colonial resistance, including establishment of the Committees of Correspondence. • The British attempt to establish an East India Company tea monopoly led to a colonial boycott. • In the Boston Tea Party of December 16, 1773, colonists disguised as American Indians dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston harbor in violation of British law. o Colonial refusal to dock or unload East India tea in New York and Philadelphia o Dartmouth arrived in Boston in late fall 1773. Samuel Adams worked to prevent unloading; Royal Governor Hutchinson was determined to get the tea ashore. George Robert Twelves Hewes—participant in Boston Tea Party • British response: o Intolerable Acts: the Boston Port Act, Administration of Justice Act, Massachusetts Governing Act, and renewed Quartering Act essentially placed the Massachusetts colony under martial law. o The Quebec Act, announced at about the same time, inflamed colonists further, who saw it as an extension of Catholic influence in Canada and the Ohio Valley. • Colonial reactions: o Restrictions imposed on Massachusetts were viewed as a threat to colonists everywhere. o Land speculators in the Ohio Valley were opposed to the Quebec Act. o Anti-Catholic sentiment spread throughout the colonies. -38- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 2 Information (continued) o o o o o o Colonists met in the First Continental Congress to coordinate resistance, forming the Continental Association to formally boycott British goods. Parliament ignored colonial concerns, leading to increasing tensions between the British and the colonists. Declaration of Independence Women throughout the colonies boycotted British goods to support the resistance. Declaration of Rights and Grievances Additional leadership in the First Continental Congress: John Adams Samuel Chase Joseph Galloway and the “Plan of Union” Patrick Henry John Jay Richard Henry Lee Edward Rutledge George Washington John Hancock -39- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 2 Information (continued) John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry • Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law. • Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 and the issue of slavery in the territories. • Republicans, Whigs, Free Soilers. • “Bleeding Kansas”—attempts of slaveholders and Free Soilers to colonize Kansas led to violence; Pottawatomie Creek. • Election of 1856. • Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857. • Lecompton Constitution of 1857 recommended admission of Kansas as a slave state. • Brown saw Garrison and his American Anti-Slavery Society as having failed in their nonviolent crusade to end slavery. • Brown felt the new Republican Party’s platform also failed to deal with slavery by opposing only the extension of slavery into new territories. • Brown led a raid on the federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia, on October 16, 1859. The purpose of the raid was to spur a slave rebellion. • The raid was suppressed by U.S. Marines and Virginia militia. • Brown was convicted of treason and executed on December 2, 1859. Reactions to John Brown’s Raid • Brown was seen by the South as a murderer and a supporter of treason. o He had no regard for constitutional guarantees of property, one of the pillars of Southern rationales for slavery. He was financed and supported by members of the abolitionist community in several northern states. o Southerners believed that Brown had widespread northern support for his actions. • Brown had support in the North even though many moderates deplored his violent tactics. o He was financed and supported by northern abolitionists. o Many also expressed sympathy for his cause and admiration for his willingness to give his life for something in which he believed strongly. “The Secret Six”—Samuel Gridley Howe, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Theodore Parker, Franklin Sanborn, Gerrit Smith, and George Stearnes Harriet Tubman, a supporter of Brown o Tributes to Brown on the day of his execution included sermons, lowered flags, tolling of bells, poems, and editorials in leading northern newspapers. Julia Ward Howe’s “John Brown’s Body Lies A-Mouldering in the Grave” o Abolitionists were enraged by Brown’s execution, seeing him as a right-spirited reformer working for a righteous cause. • Brown died declaring that “the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.” • Uproar over the Brown execution influenced the presidential campaign of 1860 and drove an additional wedge between moderates in the North and the South, pushing the two regions even further away from each other. -40- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 3 To what extent did the War of 1812 constitute a “second American revolution”? In your answer be sure to address EACH of the following. Foreign relations Economic development Limit your answer to the period through the 1820s. The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that evaluates the extent to which the War of 1812 constituted a “second American revolution” with respect to the two categories. • Develops the thesis with considerable relevant historical information. • Provides strong analysis and effectively links the War of 1812 to economic development and foreign relations. • May contain minor errors that do not detract from the overall quality of the essay. • Is well organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that partially evaluates the extent to which the War of 1812 constituted a “second American revolution” with respect to the two categories. • Supports the thesis with some relevant historical information. • Provides some analysis and some linkage between the War of 1812 and the two categories; treatment of the two categories may be uneven. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question, or contains a confused or unfocused thesis. • Provides few relevant facts, or lists facts with little or no application to the thesis. • Provides simplistic analysis that may be generally descriptive or addresses only one field. • May contain major errors. The 0–1 Essay • May paraphrase the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response. • Has little or no understanding of the question. • May contain substantial factual errors. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. -41- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Background Information for Teachers on Question 3 War of 1812 The War of 1812, though small in comparison to the Napoleonic conflict that rocked Europe, was important for the United States in that it resolved a number of issues that had hampered the new country since the end of the American Revolution in 1787. In addition to emerging on the world stage as a country that could challenge a great power like Britain and survive, the United States was finally able to put to rest lingering questions over the location of the Canadian boundary, the payment of Loyalist debts for property lost during the Revolution, British presence in forts in the Ohio Valley as well as British collusion in Indian unrest in that area, the impressments of American sailors by the British navy, and foreign interference with United States shipping in the Indies as well as trade headed for European ports. While the Treaty of Ghent essentially declared status quo ante bellum, most of these issues simply disappeared with the end of the war. In addition, American victories in the War of 1812, however marginal, gave the new country a sense of pride and nationalism that fed this new spirit of unity and national consciousness. Sectional specialization and the growth of manufacturing, along with a decline in political divisiveness in the years immediately following the war, helped spur the booming market economy of the early decades of the nineteenth century and led to the broadening of the franchise. The nation enjoyed a new burst of international respect and had the energy to take on the challenges of opening up the new lands to the west. Americans were able to turn their backs on an exhausted Europe and work enthusiastically to develop their own model of democracy. -42- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 3 Information Foreign Policy • Canadian boundary disputes • Work of the War Hawks in Congress to get the British out of the Ohio Valley o “On to Canada” o Henry Clay • Indian conflicts were believed to be spurred on by the British. o Battle of Tippecanoe, William Henry Harrison, the Prophet (Tenskwatawa), and Tecumseh • Impressment of American seamen by the British navy o “Doctrine of indelible allegiance” o USS Chesapeake • Treaty of Ghent o John Quincy Adams, Albert Gallatin, and Henry Clay o An armistice rather than a treaty to celebrate a victory o “Not one inch of territory ceded or lost” o Still, for the United States, not losing was as valuable as an outright win. o Battle of New Orleans fought after the treaty was signed. o Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817 and the Convention of 1818 settled Canadian boundary dispute. o Success of the Monroe Doctrine led the United States to see itself as having new international standing. Economic Development • Interference with American shipping o British Orders in Council o Continental System o “Doctrine of the continuous voyage” o Jefferson’s embargo o Macon’s Bill Number 2 o Non-Intercourse Act o Cadore letter and the decision to side with France o Impact of the embargo on American manufacturing • Loyalist debts were never paid despite promises made at the Treaty of Paris. • Economic divisions over the War of 1812 o “Mr. Madison’s War” o New England Federalists, Blue Light Federalists, and the Hartford Convention o Tariff of 1816 to protect American manufacturing from British competition o Henry Clay’s “American System” to link the country economically and politically o Projects to build roads and canals to link regions o Renewal of the Bank of the United States -43- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 4 The period 1870 to 1900 experienced more conflict than consensus over labor relations. Assess the validity of this statement with respect to two of the following. Government Industrialists Organized labor The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that evaluates whether the period 1870 to 1900 was a period of more conflict than consensus over labor relations with respect to TWO of the three categories. • Develops the thesis with considerable, relevant supporting information. • Has effective analysis of the role of TWO categories (industrialists, organized labor, or the government) and the ways in which they contributed to conflict or consensus regarding labor relations. • May contain minor errors. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that partially evaluates whether the period 1870 to 1900 was a period of conflict or consensus over labor relations with respect to two categories. • Supports the thesis with some accurate information. • Provides some analysis of two categories, but treatment may be uneven. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. The 2–4 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question, or contains a confused or unfocused thesis. • Provides few relevant facts, or lists facts with little or no application to the thesis. • Provides simplistic analysis that may be generally descriptive or addresses only one field. • May contain major errors. The 0–1 Essay • May paraphrase the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response. • Has little or no understanding of the question. • May contain substantial factual errors. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. -44- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 4 Information Government • Federal government constructed armories to ensure a troop presence in the event of labor difficulties. • Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), 1887 • Sherman Antitrust Act, 1890 • Labor laws • In re Debs • United States v. E.C. Knight • Benjamin Harrison • Grover Cleveland • William McKinley • John Peter Altgeld Industrialists • Engaged in ruthless competition • Pools, trusts, monopolies • Economic concentration/mergers/U.S. Steel/Standard Oil/International Harvester • Andrew Carnegie’s Carnegie Steel/U.S. Steel • Andrew Carnegie’s “Gospel of Wealth” • John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Corporation • J. P. Morgan • Philip Armour/Armour and Company • Henry Clay Frick • Jay Gould • Gustavus Swift/Swift and Company • International Harvester • National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) • George Pullman/Pullman Palace Car Company • Frederick Winslow Taylor/Taylorism /scientific management • Allan Pinkerton/Pinkerton National Detective Agency (strikebreakers) Organized Labor • The Great Railroad Strike, 1877 • The Knights of Labor, 1880s (organized unskilled and skilled workers, male and female) • Terence Powderly • Strikes, boycotts • The eight-hour day • McCormick Harvester strike, 1885 • Haymarket affair, 1886 • Henry George, labor candidate for mayor of New York City • Homestead strike, 1892 • Pullman strike, 1894 • Eugene Debs • American Railway Union (ARU) • American Federation of Labor (AFL; craft unions) • Bread and butter unionism -45- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 4 Information (continued) • • • • • • • • • • Samuel Gompers Socialist Party Unskilled immigrants from eastern Europe Labor laws Closed shop, open shop Molly Maguires Mother Jones Emma Goldman Depression of 1873 Panic of 1893 -46- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 5 Evaluate the impact of the Second World War on the United States in the 1950s and 1960s in terms of TWO of the following. Education International relations Science and technology The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that evaluates the impact of the Second World War in the 1950s and 1960s in TWO categories. • Develops the thesis with considerable, relevant support information. • Has effective analysis of events and developments during the 1950s and 1960s in TWO categories. • May contain minor errors. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that partially evaluates the impact of the Second World War in the 1950s and 1960s. • Supports the thesis with some accurate information. • Provides some analysis of two categories, but treatment may be uneven. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. The 2–4 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question, or contains a confused or unfocused thesis. • Provides few relevant facts, or lists facts with little or no application to the thesis. • Provides simplistic analysis that may be generally descriptive or addresses only one category. • May contain major errors. The 0–1 Essay • May paraphrase the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response. • Has little or no understanding of the question. • May contain substantial factual errors. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. -47- AP® United States History Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 5 Information Education • Push for math and science • Sputnik • National Defense Education Act • GI Bill of Rights • Expansion of higher education • Increasing enrollment of veterans and African Americans in colleges and universities • Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) • Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 • Head Start International Relations • Cold War politics • George Kennan • Containment • Berlin Blockade • NATO • Communist power in China • American mission to spread democracy and freedom • NSC-68 • Korean War • Cuban Missile Crisis • Bay of Pigs Invasion • Vietnam • Truman Doctrine • Domino theory • Hungarian Uprising, Suez Crisis • Marshall Plan Science and Technology • Polio vaccine • Birth-control pill • Consumerism • Luxury items • Technology such as television, consumer electronics, domestic appliances, cars • Chemicals and pharmaceuticals • Airplanes/air travel/radar/air traffic control • Space exploration/NASA • Hydrogen bomb, nuclear weapons, missile-delivery systems • Nuclear energy • Computers/origins of the Internet • Industrial automation • Federal-Aid Highway Act (establishing the interstate highway system), 1956 -48- ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 11/04/2009 for the course UR 13045 taught by Professor Mr.u during the Spring '09 term at Magnolia Bible.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online