ap07_biology_q1

ap07_biology_q1 - AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Membranes are essential components of all cells. (a) Identify THREE macromolecules that are components of the plasma membrane in a eukaryotic cell and discuss the structure and function of each. (6 points maximum; 1 point for each macromolecule + structure, 1 point for each macromolecule + function) NOTE: Only first three molecules mentioned will be scored. Macromolecule Phospholipids OR Structure • Lipid with phosphate Glycerol, two fatty acids, and polar head group w/phosphate • Amphipathic • Hydrophilic or polar (head) and hydrophobic or nonpolar (tails) Function (must match selected macromolecule) • Selectively permeable • Fluidity • Creates compartment/ separates cell from environment; barrier • Signals, inositol pathway (IP3) diacylglycerol (DAG) • • Ring structure • Moderates fluidity • Steroid • Stabilizes membrane • Amphipathic • Cholesterol Forms a lipid bilayer Embedded in bilayer • Transport • Enzyme, catalysis • Signal transduction • Attachment: extracellular matrix (ECM)-cytoskeleton • Recognition • Cell junction • Cell recognition • Attachment to external molecule or another cell Proteins OR General Structure The following specific types must indicate that they are proteins Integral Peripheral Pump Receptor Transport Recognition Tight junction Desmosomes Gap junctions Integrins Enzyme Channel • • Glycolipid/Glycoprotein Polypeptides; amino acids 2o , 3o , 4 o structure description Specific Structure • Integral, transmembrane, embedded; forms a channel • Peripheral, on surface • Structure fit to substrate or ligand • Carbohydrate (chains) linked to lipid/protein © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 (continued) (b) Explain how membranes participate in THREE of the following biological processes: (6 points maximum; 2 points maximum per section) Muscle contraction • Motor neuron or axon terminal releases neurotransmitter or acetylcholine (ACh) • ACh binds to receptors • Depolarization or Na + moves in through membrane channels or membrane depolarizes • Action potential propagates along cell membrane (sarcolemma) or T tubules • Depolarization changes permeability of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) or Ca 2 + released from SR • Ca 2+ active transport into SR (reuptake of Ca 2 + ) • Repolarization or maintenance of membrane potential (Na + /K + pump) • Smooth or cardiac muscle gap junctions directly transfer membrane potential between cells Fertilization of an egg • Part of the acrosomal reaction or sperm acrosome releases hydrolytic enzymes (by exocytosis) • Sperm binds to receptors on egg • Fusion of sperm and egg plasma membranes • Change in membrane electrical charge or fast block (depolarization) to prevent further fertilization (polyspermy) • Cortical reaction or slow block by exocytosis (prevents polyspermy) or “hardening” of membrane • Separation of fertilization membrane (envelope) • Fusion of egg and sperm nuclear membranes or nuclei Chemiosmotic production of ATP • Electron transport chain (ETC) in membrane pumps H + across membrane • H + gradient established across membrane • H + move through ATP synthase embedded in membrane to produce ATP • Membrane infolding increases surface area Intercellular signaling • Release of chemical signals by exocytosis • Receptors in membrane bind ligands or chemical signals or chemical signals pass through the membrane (examples: neurotransmitters, hormones, pheromones) • Ligand-gated ion channels opening/closing • Cascade of cellular events, including enzymatic reactions and second messengers (examples: G-proteins, cAMP, I P 3 , Ca 2 + ) • • Antibodies activate immune function Descriptions of gap junctions, plasmodesmata (communicating junctions) © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ©2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ©2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ©2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ©2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ©2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ©2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ©2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ©2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ©2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING COMMENTARY Question 1 Overview The intent of this question was to assess students’ understanding of membrane structure and function. The two-part question asked them to describe the structure and function of macromolecular components of the plasma membrane and to discuss the role of membranes in several cellular and biological processes. Sample: 1A Score: 10 In part (a) the student describes the phospholipid structure and function and received 2 points. (The response contains more than one structural detail, but only 1 point could be earned for the structure of each macromolecule.) Two points were awarded for cholesterol structure and function. The student also explains the structure and function of glycoproteins, as a subset of proteins, and received 2 points. In part (b) intracellular signaling is described; 1 point each was awarded for steroid diffusion through the membrane and the release of second messengers in the cell. The student confuses the direction of the H+ flow in mitochondria but earned 1 point for describing ATP synthesis by ATP synthase. The response also received 1 point for describing the release of calcium ions by the endoplasmic reticulum during muscle contraction. Sample: 1B Score: 6 In part (a) the response received 2 points for phospholipid structure and function and 2 points for protein structure and function. The student mentions lipid signals and blood types but does not explain that these are glycolipid functions. In part (b) the response correctly states that the infolding of the mitochondrial cristae increases surface area, earning 1 point. An additional point was earned by indicating that gap junctions allow for intercellular communication. The student makes an error in that tight junctions do not function in the same manner but was not penalized for this. Sample: 1C Score: 4 In part (a) the response received 2 points for phospholipid structure and function; the student makes an error in equating the head groups with hydrophobic regions but earned the structure point by mentioning that phospholipids form a bilayer. An additional 2 points were granted for protein structure and function; peripheral proteins are cell surface, and some integral proteins function in the transport of materials. There was a potential structure point for describing integral proteins as channels, but the student had already earned the protein structure point. The student does not provide enough details in part (b) to merit any points. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ...
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