ap07_biology_q2

ap07_biology_q2 - AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Cephalization and the development of a brain were important steps in animal evolution. (a) Discuss the evolutionary origin and adaptive significance of cephalization in animal phyla. (3 points) • Cephalization (1 point) Defined: The concentration of the nervous system toward the anterior end of the organism OR Association: Cephalization tied to bilateral symmetry development • Origin (1 point) Origin identification: (Platyhelminthes/flatworms) OR Evolutionary progression of development • Adaptive Significance/Advantage (1 point) Efficient response to a stimulus (e.g., protection, predation, avoidance, movement toward or away) During movement sensory organs encounter the environment first (b) Describe the development of the nervous system in the vertebrate embryo. (4 points maximum) • Tissue of origin (1 point) o Ectoderm gives rise to the nervous system. • Processes of development (2 points) o Neurulation described (neural tube formation) Note: The notochord does not become the nerve cord. o Other nerve development processes Neural crest cells migrate to form the peripheral nervous system Anterior portion of the neural tube/cord bulges to become the brain or brain regions • Endpoints with structures described at the end of a process step of development (1 point) o The ectoderm folds into the neural crest/tube or dorsal nerve/spinal cord o Neural tube expands or develops into developmental brain region (e.g., fore-mid-hind brain, prosen-mesen-rhombencephalon) o Spinal column/vertebrae/cranium that protects the CNS • Signaling (1 point) o Notochord (mesodermal in origin) signals or directs development of neural tube (ectodermal in origin) o Hox genes, morphogens (diffusible developmental signal) © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 (continued) (c) At the sound of shattering glass, people quickly turn their heads. Discuss how the human nervous system functions to produce this tynme of response to an external stimulus. (5 points) • • • • • Stimulus/Intermediating Structure of Receptor Action (1 point) Stimulus (sound waves, pressure, heat, etc.) producing an appropriate receptor action (eardrum vibrating, cochlear hairs vibrating or bending, pressure receptors firing, heat receptors firing, etc.) Input/Sensory/Afferent (1 point) Signal direction toward the central nervous system Integration (1 point) Processing/Interpretation by CNS Interneurons/Association/Communicating/Internuncial Output/Motor/Efferent Response (1 point) Signal direction toward effectors (peripheral NS) or description of the response or autonomic nervous response (e.g., increase in blood pressure or heart rate, muscle contraction but not just turning of head) Possible Elaboration (1 point) Neural electrophysiology (e.g., action potential, neurotransmitters, synapse) Neuron structure and impulse pathway Sensory physiology © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ©2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ©2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ©2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ©2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ©2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ©2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING COMMENTARY Question 2 Overview This question was designed to measure students’ ability to integrate evolution, development, and processes of the nervous system. Part (a) concerned cephalization as it relates to animal diversity, followed in part (b) by embryonic development of the nervous system in vertebrates, and ending in part (c) with a discussion of how the human nervous system responds to a stimulus. Sample: 2A Score: 10 In part (a) the student received 1 point for defining cephalization. Evolutionary progression is also described in the comparison of the nerve net of the cnidarians to the phyla that have cephalization. This progression garnered 1 point. The significance point was earned by stating that cephalization “allows for a better adaptive response toward predators, environmental changes . . . ” In part (b) the correct identification of the ectoderm accounted for 1 point. The process of neurulation is explained by the folding of the ectoderm to create a dorsal nerve cord. This explanation earned 1 point for process and 1 point for the endpoint of the process. In part (c) the student correctly identifies the deformation of the hair cells as a result of the mechanical stimulus and was awarded 1 point. The sensory neurons to the brain earned the input point. The correct use of interneurons in context received 1 point. The motor neurons were explained as causing the contraction of the muscle, thereby earning the output point. The explanation of the neurophysiology from the neurons to the muscle cell membrane would have earned 1 point for elaboration, but the student had already earned 10 points. Sample: 2B Score: 7 In part (a) the origin point was earned by associating cephalization with bilateral symmetry. Evolutionary progression is then explained, from animals that had no cephalization (only a nerve net) to animals with bilateral symmetry and ending with chordates. This description was awarded 1 point. For part (b) the student properly identifies the ectoderm as the origin of the nervous system and received 1 point. The endpoint of the vertebral column merited 1 point because the student properly designates the vertebral column as coming from the notochord and associates it with the dorsal nerve cord as a collective structure. In part (c) the description of the sensory receptors in the ear picking up the sound did not earn a point for stimulus, because no specific action by the stimulus on some intermediary structure (eardrum vibrating or deformation of hair cells in the cochlea) is mentioned. The input of the message to the brain earned 1 point. The student goes on to discuss interneurons connecting the impulse to parts of the central nervous system and received 1 point for integration. The output from the brain to the motor neurons was also awarded 1 point (alternatively, this point could have been earned for the impulse going to the effector). © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING COMMENTARY Question 2 (continued) Sample: 2C Score: 4 In part (a) the student provides an appropriate terrestrial adaptation of cephalization for sensing food in predation and earned 1 point. The origin of cephalization in relation to bilateral symmetry was granted 1 point. No points were awarded in part (b). In part (c) the student did not receive credit for mentioning sensory cells in the inner ear because no action of an intermediary or a specific sensory receptor is attributed to the vibrations. The student earned 1 point for input to the brain and 1 point for the output from the brain to the muscles. No point was awarded for integration because there is no mention of processing in the cerebellum. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ...
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