NPB.101.Lectures3

NPB.101.Lectures3 - NPB 101. Autumn 2009 The Nervous...

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The Nervous Systems: Organization, Protection and Support, Functions and Interrelationships of Brain Areas Chapter 5 NPB 101. Autumn 2009
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Brain Central nervous system (CNS) Spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Afferent division Efferent division Sensory stimuli Visceral stimuli Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system Motor neurons Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Glands Effector organs (made up of muscle and gland tissue) (Input to CNS from periphery) (Output from CNS to periphery) Fig. 5-1, p. 13 Major sub-divisions of the nervous system
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Central nervous system (spinal cord) Peripheral nervous system Axon terminals Cell body Afferent neuron Central axon Peripheral axon (afferent fiber) Receptor Interneuron Efferent neuron* Effector organ (muscle or gland) Axon (efferent fiber) Axon terminals * Efferent autonomic nerve pathways consist of a two-neuron chain between the CNS and the effector organ. Cell body Fig. 5-2, p. 133
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Functional classes of neurons Afferent neurons - part of peripheral nervous system and have a characteristic shape. At peripheral is a sensory receptor. Afferent fiber (peripheral axon) distal to cell body and a shorter central axon connects to the spinal cord. Efferent neurons - also part of the peripheral nervous system with cell bodies in the CNS that project to muscles and glands. Two sub-divisions are the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system . The latter has sympathetic and parasympathetic branches that oppose one another. Interneurons are characteristic of the CNS and in humans are very numerous. They lie between afferent and efferent neurons and integrate responses to the environment.
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Brain Central nervous system (CNS) Spinal cord (Input to CNS from periphery) (Output from CNS to periphery) Fig. 5-1, p. 132
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apps.uwhealth.org/health/adam/hie/2/19588.htm
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Looking after the brain About 90% of cells in the brain are not neurons but support cells called glia or neuroglia. Glia means glue, I.e. they provide vital structural support. Glial cells do not initiate action potentials Glial cells can communicate among themselves and with neurons through chemical messages - paracrine. Glial cells play crucial roles in supporting neurons physically and metabolically. Glial cells play important roles in maintaining homeostasis in the brain, provide immune function in case of infection and may also be involved in neuronal activity such learning and memory, neuroendocrine secretion etc.
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Space containing cerebrospinal fluid Ependymal cell Neurons Oligodendrocyte Capillary Microglial cell Astrocyte Fig. 5-3, p. 134
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Fig. 5-4, p. 135 Astrocytes, the most numerous of the glial cells
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Functions of Glial Cells Astrocytes - provide physical support for neurons, in the correct spatial relationships.
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NPB.101.Lectures3 - NPB 101. Autumn 2009 The Nervous...

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