Lecture%2004%20-%20Phylogeny%20%26%20Speciation

Lecture%2004%20-%20Phylogeny%20%26%20Speciation - A...

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A critical phrase: variation precedes adaptation selection only works on genetic variation that is already present in a population acquired traits are not passed on to offspring, so do not evolve in response to selection Make sure you can explain the difference between what Darwin proposed and what Lamarck proposed for how species adapt over time to their environment
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Females Males streams with predatory fish streams without predators Selection on color in guppy fish What kinds of selection are acting on guppies? Which is stronger?
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Controversies: the politics of knowledge According to a poll by the New Scientist , U.S. citizens lag way behind the rest of the western world in their acceptance of evolution Only 15% of US adults believe humans evolved over millions of years
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Controversies: the politics of knowledge 1. Evolution is “just a theory” 2. You should “teach the controversy” 3. Intelligent Design
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Controversies. .? 1. Evolution is “just a theory” In science, theory = a general expression of a hypothesis that is well substantiated by lots of experimental data - the best explanation for all the data - a hypothesis that has withstood testing in thousands of experiments over many decades This is not how “theory” is used in common parlance; that is what we call a hypothesis , a notion that needs to be tested
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Controversies. .? 1. Evolution is “just a theory” 2. You should “teach the controversy” There isn’t one. Evolution is the central principle of biology; nothing in biology makes sense except in light of evolution via natural and sexual selection. There is no evidence that contradicts the theory of evolution There is no controversy in biology about this!
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Controversies. .? 1. Evolution is “just a theory” 2. You should “teach the controversy” 3. Intelligent Design Says it is “too unlikely” life could evolve by descent with modification, so organisms must have been created by God, as a product of deliberate design This is untestable, therefore it is not science Only testable ideas are subject to the scientific method; other ideas are a matter of opinion or belief, but are not science
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“Evolution Has Failed” - oh really Intelligent Design proponents frequently claim: “Evolutionists have had 150 years to explain everything that has ever happened in the history of life on earth, but they still cannot explain everything, so toss evolution out” In science, we work by disproving hypotheses with evidence - ideas are not rejected because they cannot explain the entire universe in one sentence Example: Newton’s physics vs. Einstein’s Theory of Relativity
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This note was uploaded on 11/05/2009 for the course BIO 8997 taught by Professor Bla during the Spring '09 term at Academy of Design Tampa.

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Lecture%2004%20-%20Phylogeny%20%26%20Speciation - A...

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