Study Guide for Anthro Final

Study Guide for Anthro Final - Study Guide for Anthro Final...

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Study Guide for Anthro Final Social Groups and Social Stratification -Social groups: clusters of individuals that are connected beyond both household and kinship ties. -Primary: individuals with personal connections -Secondary: people with similar interests who may never meet -Functions of a social group: social groups work to organize society as kinship groups become less and less important. Social groups have different primary functions. -Different Social Groupings: -Friendship: economic security among the poor. Related to gender, age, class, ethnicity, and institutions. Maintained through balanced exchange. Usually between social equals. -Clubs and Fraternities: define membership by a sense of shared identity and objectives. Primarily a social function. May have influence on political or economic issues as well. -Countercultural Groups: people who resist conforming to the dominant cultural pattern. Members desire to be identified with a special group i.e. youth groups, body modification groups, swingers. -Work Groups: organized to perform specific tasks. Prominent in horticultural and agricultural communities. Often made up of youths, age groups. -Cooperatives: surpluses are shared among the members. One person, one vote. -Self-help Groups: formed to achieve personal goals, numbers have proliferated in recent years. Rituals of solidarity. -Social Stratification: hierarchical relationships among different groups including outright discrimination *even egalitarian group! -Two reasons we have social stratification: 1) helps society run more smoothly, people know what job they need to do. 2) it exists so people with higher status can exploit those with lower status. -Types of Status: -Achieved: something through your personal work you get. (class, professor, millionaire) -Ascribed: born into, can’t change. (race, ethnicity, Greek, old, male) -Systems based on social stratification: large numbers of people are relegated to a certain status. Those in power seek to maintain that power. Those ranked higher dominate those that as seen as lower status. Instances of subversion do occur and agency is expressed. -Civil Society: diverse interest groups that function outside the government to organize aspects of life. -New Social Movements: activist groups of the late 20 th and early 20 th century. Many use cyber networking. -Race: depends on culture. Cultural construct. We made this to divide people into groups. We selected skin color as a way to identify people. There is more variation within a race than between a race. You may have different race in different countries. Race does not really exist, but it still matters. You can’t tell race by looking at DNA. Racism leads to stress and disease. -Achieved Position: a person’s standing in society based on qualities that the person has gained through
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This note was uploaded on 11/05/2009 for the course ANTH 411 taught by Professor Davidov during the Spring '08 term at New Hampshire.

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Study Guide for Anthro Final - Study Guide for Anthro Final...

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