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Week 2 - September 7th and 9th

Week 2 - September 7th and 9th - Week of September 7th New...

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Week of September 7 th New and Old Wars: Chapter 1 Central argument of book is that there has emerged a new type of organized violence in the last decades of the twentieth century, especially in Africa and Eastern Europe - Blurring of distinctions between war, organized crime, and large scale violations of human rights - Privatization of war Revolution in military affairs or Defense transformation - Advent of information technologies is as significant as the development of the tank and the airplane in terms of military strategy New wars epitomize the divide between members of a global class who are privileged and those who are not - Those who can speak English, use the internet, credit cards - Those who are excluded from the global process o Limited to what they can barter, expense of travel, roadblocks, etc Weakening of state’s abilities to use unilateral force due to development of international norms Violence is becoming increasingly privatized - Result of growth of organized crime, emergence of paramilitary groups, and political legitimacy is disappearing New wars can be contrasted with old in terms of goals, methods, and financial means - Goals of new wars are about identity politics o Claim to power based on particular identity National, clan, religious, or linguistic - Methods incorporate experience of both guerilla war and counter- insurgency o Highly decentralized military powers - New war economies are highly decentralized o Participation in war is low and unemployment extremely high o Economies are heavily dependent upon outside sources Can often be seen as wars between exclusivism and cosmopolitanism - Key to solution is restoration of legitimacy o Reconstitution of control of organized violence Stephen M. Walt: International Relations: One World, Many Theories Inescapable link between abstract world of theories and real world of policy - No single approach can capture all the complexity of contemporary world politics
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