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Unformatted text preview: to bind a molecule of GTP in place of GDP. Hydrolysis of the bound GTP to GDP inactivates the G protein. Cyclic AMP: cyclic adenosine monophosphate, a ring-shaped molecule made from ATP that a common intracellular signaling molecule (second messenger) in eukaryotic cells, for example, in vertebrate endocrine cells. adenylyl cyclase: An enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to a chemical signal. IP 3 (inositol triphosphate): The second messenger, which functions as an intermediate between certain nonsteroid hormones and the third messenger, a rise in cytoplasmic Ca ++ concentration. DAG (diacyl glycerol): Serves as a second messenger in stimulating the activity of protein kinase C. Phosphodiesterase: An enzyme that deactivates cyclic AMP....
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