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Chapter 4 Lecture Notes

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes - 4.17 Synthesis of Alkanes and...

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Chapter 4 - 1 4.17. Synthesis of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Hydrogenation: alkene alkyne H 2 alkane
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Chapter 4 - 2 CO 2 Me CO 2 Me ? O H 2 , Pd ? Ans) H 2 , Ni (or Pd), EtOH Ans) O O Not formed
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Chapter 4 - 3 Synthesis: Alkylation of Terminal Alkynes Question) Complete the following reaction by giving conditions and the appropriate intermedite. Question) Synthesize the following multistep synthesis. R R' R H Answer) Answer)
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Chapter 4 - 4 Chapter 4. Nomenclature and Conformations of Alkanes & Cycloalkanes 4.3. IUPAC Nomenclature See Table 4.3 for The Unbranched Alkanes: Methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, Nonane, decane, undecane, dodecane, tridecane, - - - - - - - Nomenclature (Naming) 1. Longest continuous chain: parent name (-----alkane) both same hexane 6 C's 7 C's heptane incorrect correct
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Chapter 4 - 5 2. Numbering: Start near the substituent (Substituent at the lowest possible number) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 5 4 3 2 6 7 correct incorrect correct incorrect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 nonane 8 9 Q) Identify the parent chain and number carbons. answer 3. Name: #-sub-alkane (or #-alkylalkane) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 methyl 2-methylhexane methyl 3-methylheptane
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Chapter 4 - 6 4. More sub: # 1 -sub 1 -# 2 -sub 2 -alkane (or # 1 -alkyl-# 2 -alkylalkane) Note: sub 1 & sub 2 in alphabetical order 1 2 3 4 5 6 methyl 4-ethyl-2-methylhexane ethyl ethyl > methyl 5. Sub on the same carbon: # 1 = # 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 methyl 3-ethyl-3-methylhexane ethyl ethyl > methyl 6. Identical sub: sub 1 = sub 2 # 1 ,# 2 -di-sub-alkane (# 1 ,# 2 -dialkylalkane) # 1 ,# 2 ,# 3 -tri-sub-alkane; # 1 ,# 2 ,# 3 ,# 4 -tetra-sub-alkane 1 2 3 4 methyl methyl butane 2,3-dimethylbutane di, tri, etc are not counted for alphabetical order
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Chapter 4 - 7 7. More sub: Two longest chains for possible parent ---> Pick the one with more substituents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2,3,5-trimethyl-4-propylheptane 1 2 3 No substituent Two substituents 8. sub: at the lowest possible number (also at the first point of difference) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 incorrect: 2,4,5-trimethylhexane correct: 2,3,5-trimethylhexane 4 5 6 3 is lower than 4
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Chapter 4 - 8 4.3C. Branched alkyl groups Numbering begins at the carbon attached to the parent chain. 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 1-methylethyl (isopropyl) propyl 2-methylpropyl (isobutyl) iso and neo are considered for alphabetical order. They are part of names.
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