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silicon funda for photonics

silicon funda for photonics - Silicon Fundamentals for...

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Silicon Fundamentals for Photonics Applications David J. Lockwood 1 and Lorenzo Pavesi 2 1 InstituteforMicrostructuralSciences,NationalResearchCouncilofCanada Ottawa,ON,CanadaK1A0R6 [email protected] 2 DipartimentodiFisica,Universit`adiTrento ViaSommarive14,38050-PovoTrento,Italy [email protected] Abstract. Themanyanddiverseapproachestomaterials scienceproblemshave greatlyenhancedourabilitytoengineerthephysicalpropertiesofsemiconductors. Silicon,ofallsemiconductors,underpinsnearlyallmicroelectronicstodayandwill continuetodosoforsometimetocome.However,inoptoelectronicsandphotonics, the severe disadvantage of an indirect band-gap and of a negligible electro-optic coefficient has limited the application of elemental silicon. This chapter provides introductorymaterialonthephysicalpropertiesofsiliconandoutlinesanumberof diverseapproachestoengineeringefficientphotoniccomponentsfromsilicon.The commonparadigmismaterialcompatibilitywithmicroelectroniccomponents. 1 Introduction The ubiquitous silicon microelectronic “chip” is taken for granted in mod- ern society. There has been much research involved in producing these high technology marvels and such research continues unabated at a faster and faster pace. Continued developments in Si and, more recently, Si 1 x Ge x al- loy and strained silicon technology [ 1 , 2 ] continue to advance the frontiers of device integration, complexity, and speed. This continued advance has been driven by application requirements in switching technology (e.g., com- puters) and high-speed electronics (e.g., wireless telecommunications). Today the thrust is towards pervasive computing: the end-user will use all the power of a computer without noticing that the device he is using has a computer inside. Other compound semiconductor materials, such as GaAs or InP or III–V alloys, have, however, maintained a significant role in the construction of optoelectronic and purely photonic devices [ 3 ]. Photonics is the technol- ogy associated with signal generation, processing, transmission and detection where the signal is carried by photons (i.e., light); principal photonic devices are lasers, waveguides, modulators, detectors, and optical fibers [ 4 ]. If one compares today’s photonics industry (worth almost 9 b$) with the microelectronics one (worth almost 160 b$) there are many differences: L. Pavesi, D.J. Lockwood (Eds.): Silicon Photonics, Topics Appl. Phys. 94 , 1– 52 (2004) c circlecopyrt Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004
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2 DavidJ.LockwoodandLorenzoPavesi Fig.1. Materialsandcomponentsinanoptoelectronictransceiver.(Source: Intel c circlecopyrt ) A variety of different materials is used: e.g., the InP substrate for source development, silica as the material for fibers, lithium niobate for modula- tors, other materials for DWDM components and EDFA amplifiers, and so on (see Fig. 1 ).
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