Test 1 Study Guide

Test 1 Study Guide - Test 1 Study Guide Criminal Justice...

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Test 1 Study Guide Criminal Justice 4000 Computer Crime Hackers, script kiddies, and Warez Doodez: A. 1950’s a. To be called a hacker was a honor, and a sense of respect b. Had to the ability to make computers work more efficiently B. 1960’s a. began to create a series of ethics and ideals of a “Hacker Ethic” i. Access to computers should be unlimited and total ii. All information should be free iii. Hackers should be judged according to their hacking only C. 1970’s a. This was the rise of the criminal hacker i. To take money away from capitalist phone companies 1. TAP and YIP b. First BBS was started at this time D. 1980’s a. This period solidifies the notion of the hacker as criminal b. The personal computer becomes mainstreamed c. Hacker groups develop and become involved in daring and well known computer break-ins d. The Mentor writes “The Hacker Manifesto” which divides the hacker subculture E. 1990’s to present a. The birth of the Internet increases the number of on-line users and potential targets b. Hacker groups are subject to stringent crackdowns by the government F. Hackers a. Hackers don’t necessarily view what they do as criminal behavior b. Say flaws are a result of bad programming and the vulnerabilities allow them to get in, basis of thinking what they do is not wrong. c. The majority of hackers may have questionable morality G. What is a hacker a. Two core elements: i. Individuals with a profound interest in computers and technology ii. Use this knowledge to access computer systems with or without authorization from the system owner H. Hacker activities a. Phreaking b. Telephone hacking, utilizing telephony for illegal activities c. Malware Writing d. Creating malicious software e. Wardriving f. Seeking out and using wireless Internet connections which they do not own g. Piracy h. Breaking copyright protections on software/media to copy and distribute said item (also referred to as warez)
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Measuring and Theorizing Computer Crimes A. Measurement issues a. Measuring cybercrime is a significant challenge for several reasons i. Like many other crimes, there is no standard for what constitutes an offense ii. Who and what you report is not always apparent iii. May not know when you have been attacked iv. Not all states have computer crime laws b. Crime statistics are created through the incidents made known by the public i. Aggregated reporting is used to create the UCR B. Offenders a. Unfortunately, we do not know much about the characteristics of offenders i. Through the 80s and 90s, crime 80% of threats were internal b. This issue of internal vs. external complicates measurement i. Some crimes will only come from the outside c. External penetrators i. Hackers or those who gain unauthorized access d. Internal penetrators i.
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Test 1 Study Guide - Test 1 Study Guide Criminal Justice...

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