a100L08 - Astronomy 100: Descriptive Astronomy Assistant...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Astronomy 100: Descriptive Astronomy Assistant Professor Scott Severson Department of Physics and Astronomy Office: Darwin 300L (707) 664-2376 scott.severson@sonoma.edu Class websites: http://www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/people/faculty/severson/a100 https://webct6.sonoma.edu/webct/logon/306004752001 A100 Fall 2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson 1 Astronomy 100 Course Outline Cosmic Perspective Week Tuesday Thursday Chapter Reading 1 Aug 27 2 Sep 01 Sep 03 1.1, 1.2 3 Sep 08 Sep 10 2.1-2.3 4 Sep 15 Sep 17 3.1, 3.3-3.5, 4 5 Sep 22 Furlough 5 6 Sep 29 Oct 01 6.1-6.3 7 Oct 06 Oct 08 7.1-7.2, 10.1, 11.1-11.2 8 Oct 13 Furlough 12, 13.1 9 Oct 20 Oct 22 14.1-14.2 10 Oct 27 Oct 29 15 11 Nov 03 Nov 05 16.1, 17.1-17.3 12 Nov 10 Nov 12 S3.3, 18.1-18.3 13 Nov 17 Nov 19 19.1,19.2,19.4 14 Furlough 15 Dec 01 Dec 03 20, 21.1 16 Dec 08 Dec 10 22, 23.1-23.2 17 Dec 17 HW Due (Thursday) Quizzes (Thursday) Intro 1 2 3 4 5 6 + Review 1 (Chapters 1-2) 2 (Chapters 3-6) 3 (Chapters 7-13) 4 (Chapters 14-18+S3.3) 7 Chs. 22 & 23 X-Cr. Review Due by Final 5 (Chapters 19-21) Cumulative Final Thursday, December 17 5:00 p.m. - 6:50 p.m. A100 Fall 2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson 2 A100 Fall 2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson 3 How did Galileo solidify the Copernican revolution? continued ... Galileo (1564-1642) overcame major objections to Copernican view. Continuing from last lecture ... Galileo also saw four moons orbiting Jupiter, proving that not all objects orbit the Earth 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson Galileo’s observations of phases of Venus proved that it orbits the Sun and not Earth. 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson The Catholic Church ordered Galileo to recant his claim that Earth orbits the Sun in 1633 His book on the subject was removed from the Church’s index of banned books in 1824 Galileo was formally vindicated by the Church in 1992 Galileo Galilei 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson 3.4 The Nature of Science How can we distinguish science from non-science? • Defining science can be surprisingly difficult. • Science from the Latin scientia, meaning “knowledge.” 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson The idealized scientific method • • Based on proposing and testing hypotheses hypothesis = educated guess 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson But science rarely proceeds in this idealized way… For example: • Sometimes we start by “just looking” then coming up with possible explanations. • Sometimes we follow our intuition rather than a particular line of evidence. 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson Hallmarks of Science: #1 Modern science seeks explanations for observed phenomena that rely solely on natural causes. (A scientific model cannot include divine intervention) 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson Hallmarks of Science: #2 Science progresses through the creation and testing of models of nature that explain the observations as simply as possible. (Simplicity = “Occam’s razor”) 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson Hallmarks of Science: #3 A scientific model must make testable predictions about natural phenomena that would force us to revise or abandon the model if the predictions do not agree with observations. 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson What is a scientific theory? • The word theory has a different meaning in science than in everyday life. • In science, a theory is NOT the same as a hypothesis, rather: • A scientific theory must: —Explain a wide variety of observations with a few simple principles —Be supported by a large, compelling body of evidence. —Not have failed any crucial test of its validity. 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson Thought Question Darwin’s theory of evolution meets all the criteria of a scientific theory. This means: A. B. C. Scientific opinion is about evenly split as to whether evolution really happened. Scientific opinion runs about 90% in favor of the theory of evolution and about 10% opposed. After more than 100 years of testing, Darwin’s theory stands stronger than ever, having successfully met every scientific challenge to its validity. There is no longer any doubt that the theory of evolution is absolutely true in every way. D. 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson Thought Question Darwin’s theory of evolution meets all the criteria of a scientific theory. This means: A. B. C. Scientific opinion is about evenly split as to whether evolution really happened. Scientific opinion runs about 90% in favor of the theory of evolution and about 10% opposed. After more than 100 years of testing, Darwin’s theory stands stronger than ever, having successfully met every scientific challenge to its validity. There is no longer any doubt that the theory of evolution is absolutely true in every way. D. 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson How is astrology different from astronomy? • Astronomy is a science focused on learning about how stars, planets, and other celestial objects work. • Astrology is a search for hidden influences on human lives based on the positions of planets and stars in the sky. 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson Does astrology have any scientific validity? • Scientific tests have shown that astrological predictions are no more accurate than we should expect from pure chance. Watch: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=haP7Ys9ocTk 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson How do we describe motion? Precise definitions to describe motion: • Speed: Rate at which object moves example: speed of 10 m/s • Velocity: Speed and direction example: 10 m/s, due east • Acceleration: Any change in velocity units of speed/time (m/s2) 09/15/2009 Asst. Prof. Scott Severson ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 11/08/2009 for the course ASTR 3048 taught by Professor Severson during the Fall '09 term at Sonoma.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online