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1 - Elements of Meteorology Notes Fall 2006 — 11:670:201...

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Unformatted text preview: Elements of Meteorology Notes, Fall 2006 — 11:670:201 1. First Day of Class a. Grades: available from httpszlfsecure.fas.rutgersedufappslgradebook i. ii. Useful Websites: 1 . http2flenvsci.rutgers.edu 2. http://wwwwxrutgersedu 3. httpzllclimate. rutgersed ulstatecllm 2. History of Meteorology a. Aristotle, in 340 BC, defined a “meteor” as anything that fell from the sky. b. 15005~1700s: first instruments were developed 0. 1800s _ Science progressed with better instrumentation i. The telegraph greatly aided gathering of surface observations — fast information d. 19205 in Norway, the concept of air masses and fronts came about i. Fronts — World War I had just ended, and the concept of battle fronts was still fresh in the minds of many, and the analogy of battling forces fits the situation of battling air masses. e. 19405 —- Two major breakthroughs: i. Radiosonde -— allowed for observations to be taken of the upper atmosphere. Important because many surface features are reflections of occurrences in the upper atmosphere, and a 3-dimensional View of these features is crucial in understanding them. ii. Radar — a by-product of World War ll. it was used to detect enemy aircraft, but it was found that precipitation showed up in the returns as well. f. 19505 — Numerical weather prediction. Development of computers meant that using equations that modeled atmospheric behavior became practical due to the millions of calculations that needed to be performed to obtain results. 9. 196th — The space race makes its impact known, as weather satellites were developed. 3. Instrumentation a. Temperature — thermometer. Mercury, alcohol, or electronic. i. Temperature Conversions 1. °c = 519 (u: — 32) 2. "F = (1.8 x°C) + 32 b. Moisture i. Moisture variables: 1. Relative Humidity —— not of great meteorological importance. 2. Dew point — Temperature to which if the air is cooled, it wilf be saturated and dew will begin to form 3. Wet bulb Temperature — Lowest temperature attained through evaporating water into the air ii. Instruments: 1. Hair Hygrometer —— length of blends human hair in this instrument changes with air's moisture content. Accurate within 5%. 2. Sling psychrometer — Measures wet—bulb temperature. A wick is wrapped around an ordinary thermometer, then the wick is soaked, and the water ' is then dried. 3. Electronic sensors are also available. ...
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