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11 - 13 Important Forces in Met eorology a Pressure...

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11 13. Important Forces in Meteorology a. Pressure gradient force directed from higher pressure to lower pressure b. In general, warmer temperatures result when certain air pressures occur at higher than normal altitudes. Lower altitudes result in cooler temperatures. c. Coriolis force apparent deflection to the right of motion in the northern hemisphere, to the left in the southern hemisphere (Needs to be considered over long distances). d. Vorticity Rotation/spinning of air about a vertical axis, caused by jet streaks, which are areas of maximum winds in the jet stream. e. Friction applicable in the lowest 1km of the atmosphere due to surface obstructions. Density of air is higher in this layer than any other place in the atmosphere. Tends to s low the flow. When wind “dives”, or downslopes through this layer, the air tends to warm thanks to friction between other air molecules. 14. Air Masses a. An air mass is a large volume of air that has a high degree of homogeneity/uniformity over a broad area.
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