11 13. Important Forces in Meteorology a. Pressure gradient force –directed from higher pressure to lower pressure b. In general, warmer temperatures result when certain air pressures occur at higher thannormal altitudes. Lower altitudes result in cooler temperatures. c. Coriolis force –apparent deflection to the right of motion in the northern hemisphere, tothe left in the southern hemisphere (Needs to be considered over long distances). d. Vorticity –Rotation/spinning of air about a vertical axis, caused by jet streaks, whichare areas of maximum winds in the jet stream. e. Friction –applicable in the lowest 1km of the atmosphere due to surface obstructions.Density of air is higher in this layer than any other place in the atmosphere. Tends toslow the flow. When wind “dives”, or downslopes through this layer, the air tends towarm thanks to friction between other air molecules. 14. Air Masses a. An air mass is a large volume of air that has a high degree of homogeneity/uniformityover a broad area.
This is the end of the preview.
access the rest of the document.