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Coevolution 2 & 3

Coevolution 2 & 3 - Kuru in New Guinea Obscure...

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1 “Kuru” in New Guinea Obscure disease in remote location… Why bother? How does culture evolve? What kind of process(es) is it? What are its “Big 4”?
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2 Historically, two types of “yes” answers… “Spencerian Yes:” cultural systems evolve through stages of increasing complexity … What causes … What causes “progress?” “Darwinian Yes:” cultural systems show their own version of descent with modification What causes modification?” Sample Spencerian Scheme: “Transformational Lenski 1980 Transformational evolution:” Change results from conversion of one form to another “19 th Century Evolutionary Anthropology:” ( Lewis Henry Morgan, Edward Tylor, John McClennan)
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3 Coevolution takes the Darwinian route… T ree of Life” ( Kroeber 1948) “Tree of Culture” Darwinian evolution is variational… Change results from a culling of variation over time Two contrasting ‘kinds’ of evolution: Transformational Progressive, with stages or phases Unilineal or multilineal trajectories Variational Culling of variation from a collection of variants Differential persistence of existing forms
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4 New stock for We’re not used to variational models! Coevolutionary Theory Starts with the assumption that Starts with the assumption that human phenotypes are the product of two kinds of inheritance genes & culture …both of which show variational evolution
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5 Genetic Cultural n Population of diverse phenotypes G C Coevolutionary Theory Generations Genetic Inheritance Cultural Inheritance n+1 Population of diverse phenotypes G C What Causes G and C? Genetic n G Causes of Genetic Change ( G): 1. Mutation 2. Migration 3 Drift (chance effects) Generations Genetic Inheritance n+1 3. 4. Natural Selection (differential reproduction) --Darwin’s “main motor” G Cultural n C Causes of Cultural Change ( C): ? Generations Cultural Inheritance n+1 C
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6 Cultural n C Causes of Cultural Change ( C): 1. Innovation (invention) 2 Diff i (b i ) Generations Cultural Inheritance n+1 C 2. Diffusion (borrowing) 3. Transmission Forces (horizontal, oblique) Gene transmission is regular & unlikely to cause evolution itself… (the Hardy-Weinberg law!) Cultural transmission can take many forms, and by itself, be a cause of distributional/evolutionary change From Cavalli & Feldman 1980 Cultural n C Causes of Cultural Change ( C): 1. Innovation (invention) 2 Diff i (b i ) Generation s Cultural Inheritance n+1 C 2. Diffusion (borrowing) 3. Transmission Forces (horizontal, oblique) What’s the main motor?
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