Coevolution 2 & 3

Coevolution 2 - 1 “Kuru” in New Guinea Obscure disease in remote location… Why bother How does culture evolve What kind of process(es is it

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Unformatted text preview: 1 “Kuru” in New Guinea Obscure disease in remote location… Why bother? How does culture evolve? What kind of process(es) is it? What are its “Big 4”? 2 Historically, two types of “yes” answers… • “Spencerian Yes:” cultural systems evolve through stages of increasing complexity … What causes complexity … What causes “progress?” • “Darwinian Yes:” cultural systems show their own version of descent with modification … What causes modification?” Sample Spencerian Scheme: “Transformational Lenski 1980 Transformational evolution:” Change results from conversion of one form to another “19 th Century Evolutionary Anthropology:” ( Lewis Henry Morgan, Edward Tylor, John McClennan) 3 Coevolution takes the Darwinian route… Tree of Life” ( Kroeber 1948) “Tree of Culture” ¡ Darwinian evolution is variational… Change results from a culling of variation over time Two contrasting ‘kinds’ of evolution: ¢ Transformational ¢ Progressive, with stages or phases ¢ Unilineal or multilineal trajectories ¢ Variational ¢ Culling of variation from a collection of variants ¢ Differential persistence of existing forms 4 New stock for We’re not used to variational models! Coevolutionary Theory Starts with the assumption that Starts with the assumption that human phenotypes are the product of two kinds of inheritance genes & culture …both of which show variational evolution 5 Genetic Cultural n Population of diverse phenotypes G C Coevolutionary Theory Generations Genetic Inheritance Cultural Inheritance n+1 Population of diverse phenotypes ∆ G ∆ C What Causes ∆ G and ∆ C? Genetic n G Causes of Genetic Change ( ¡ G): 1. Mutation 2. Migration 3 Drift (chance effects Generations Genetic Inheritance n+1 3. Drift (chance effects) 4. Natural Selection (differential reproduction)--Darwin’s “main motor” ∆ G Cultural n C Causes of Cultural Change ( ¡ C): ? Generations Inheritance n+1 ∆ C ? 6 Cultural n C Causes of Cultural Change ( ∆ C): 1. Innovation (invention) Generations Cultural Inheritance n+1 ¡ C 2. Diffusion (borrowing) 3. Transmission Forces (horizontal, oblique) Gene transmission is regular & unlikely to cause evolution itself… (the Hardy-Weinberg law!) Cultural transmission can take many forms, and by itself, be a cause of distributional/evolutionary change From Cavalli & Feldman 1980 Cultural n C Causes of Cultural Change ( ∆ C): 1. Innovation (invention) 2 Diff i (b i Generation s Inheritance n+1 ¡ C 2. Diffusion (borrowing) 3. Transmission Forces (horizontal, oblique) What’s the main motor? 7 New challenges: adding complexity • Human environments, for example, are shaped by “niche construction;” • Agriculture is especially good at constructing lasting heritable environmental change lasting, heritable environmental change… • What are the main processes of change in this track? How to model them alone and in interaction with the other tracks?...
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2009 for the course HUMBIO 2A taught by Professor Boggs,c;durham,w during the Spring '08 term at Stanford.

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Coevolution 2 - 1 “Kuru” in New Guinea Obscure disease in remote location… Why bother How does culture evolve What kind of process(es is it

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